Hyperactive behavioral phenotypes and an altered brain monoaminergic state in male offspring mice with perinatal hypothyroidism

Publication date: Available online 7 October 2019Source: Toxicology ReportsAuthor(s): Toyoshi Umezu, Taizo Kita, Masatoshi MoritaAbstractThyroid hormone (TH) is essential for normal brain development. TH insufficiency during early stages of development may increase the risk for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, in which malfunction of brain monoaminergic systems is likely involved. However, little is known about the effects of perinatal hypothyroidism on behaviors and brain monoaminergic systems in offspring mice. The present study examined in mice (1) whether perinatal hypothyroidism causes hyperactive behavioral phenotypes, (2) how perinatal hypothyroidism influences brain monoaminergic systems, and (3) whether hyperactive behavioral phenotypes are associated with the state of brain monoaminergic systems. When dams were exposed to propylthiouracil, offspring mice developed hypothyroidism during the perinatal period. Offspring mice with perinatal hypothyroidism exhibited hyperactive behavioral phenotypes such as hyper-ambulatory activity and an increased response rate in the two-way active avoidance test in a male-specific manner. Significant decreases in dopamine (DA) and serotonin turnover were observed in the striatum (ST), nucleus accumbens, hypothalamus, and hippocampus in male mice with perinatal hypothyroidism. A significant correlation between ambulatory activity and DA turnover in the ST and an augmented ambulatory response to the DA reuptake inhibitor bupro...
Source: Toxicology Reports - Category: Toxicology Source Type: research

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CASE: Alex is a 14-year-old Portuguese-American boy with a psychiatric history starting at age 5 who presents to your primary care practice after an insurance change. He was delivered prematurely at 32 weeks and diagnosed with congenital hypothyroidism at the age of 6 weeks and growth hormone deficiency at the age of 2 years; he is in active treatment for both. He otherwise met developmental milestones on time yet continues to have significant fatigue despite adequate sleep and vitamin D supplementation. His family history is remarkable for maternal anxiety, depression, suicidal thoughts, and previous attempted suicide...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics - Category: Child Development Tags: Challenging Case Source Type: research
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Source: Psychiatric Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLES Source Type: research
Conclusions: The reviewed articles suggest an association between maternal thyroid function and ADHD, and possibly between early-treated congenital hypothyroidism and ADHD. Study limitations, however, weaken the conclusions in our systematic review, underlining the need for more research. Importantly, there was much variation in the measurement of thyroid hormone function and of ADHD symptoms. Recommendations for future research include using population-based designs, attending to measurement issues for thyroid hormones and ADHD, considering biologically relevant covariates (e.g., iodine intake), and assessing nonlinear ...
Source: Epidemiology - Category: Epidemiology Tags: Perinatal and Child Health Source Type: research
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Source: Hormone Research in Paediatrics - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
I was browsing the internet one day and came across a photo of a group of women who appeared educated and influential. They were wearing blue T-shirts with claims that vaccines cause autoimmune diseases, seizures, ADHD or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, learning disabilities, death, autism, sudden infant death syndrome and infertility. I couldn’t help but laugh at them! I shared this photo on my Facebook page. To my surprise, one of my educated friends shared her concern about vaccinations and declared that she had withheld immunization from her own children. I decided to write this paper for young women li...
Source: Kevin, M.D. - Medical Weblog - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Conditions Pediatrics Source Type: blogs
This article reviews this relationship and provides recommendations for management. Keywords: Insomnia, sleep disorder, psychiatric disorder, depression, psychosis, schizophrenia, anxiety disorder Insomnia affects 25 million people in the United States annually and leads to an estimated $100 billion health care burden. Insomnia has also been shown to be a causal factor in other medical and psychiatric disorders, cognitive impairments, accidents, absenteeism, and reduced quality of life.1 The cost of not treating insomnia is more than the cost of treating insomnia.2 Insomnia as a symptom is seen in up to one third of the Un...
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CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal maternal thyroid function in early pregnancy was associated with epilepsy, ASD, and ADHD in the child, but associations differed by subtypes of exposure and by child age and sex. More evidence on subtypes and severity of maternal thyroid function is needed, and alternative outcomes of child neurodevelopment may be warranted. PMID: 29584590 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Thyroid Source Type: research
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ConclusionMaternal hypothyroxinaemia and subclinical hypothyroidism may be associated with intellectual disability in offspring. Currently there is no evidence that levothyroxine treatment, when initiated 8 to 20 weeks gestation (mostly between 12‐17 weeks), for mild maternal thyroid hormone insufficiency during pregnancy reduces intellectual disability in offspring.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Source: Clinical Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
To examine if maternal hypothyroidism increases the risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the offspring and how this risk may be modified by sex, race-ethnicity, and gestational length.
Source: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Authors: Tags: Poster Session IV Source Type: research
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