Factors affecting the transition of acute kidney injury to chronic kidney disease: Potential mechanisms and future perspectives.

Factors affecting the transition of acute kidney injury to chronic kidney disease: Potential mechanisms and future perspectives. Eur J Pharmacol. 2019 Oct 04;:172711 Authors: Ogbadu J, Singh G, Aggarwal D Abstract Acute kidney injury (AKI) is defined as a rapid loss of kidney function characterised by inflammation and cell death, ultimately leading to further functional and structural renal alterations. Based on experimental and epidemiological pieces of evidence, AKI may progress to chronic kidney disease (CKD) even after a recovery period due to maladaptive repair and other underlying mechanisms such as heightened Wnt signalling, overstimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system (RAAS) pathway, epigenetic alterations and inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) dependent defences. It has been reported that RAAS activation subsequent to renal insult mediates inflammatory and fibrotic mechanisms, which are a hallmark of CKD. Moreover, interesting evidence regarding the exposure-dependent dual role of Wnt signalling in both injury and repair, epigenetic changes underlying kidney disease suggest a potential therapeutic role of these pathways in AKI to CKD continuum. In addition, the hypoxia-independent renal benefits of erythropoietin such as anti-apoptosis and tubular regeneration also present an auspicious target which could be useful in clinical settings. In this review, the specific roles of these pathways in kidney disease, their patholo...
Source: European Journal of Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Eur J Pharmacol Source Type: research

Related Links:

Abstract Extracellular vesicle (EV)-based regenerative therapy has shown promising results in preclinical models of renal disease and might be useful for patients with several forms of chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, individuals with CKD often present with comorbidities, including obesity, hypertension, diabetes, or even metabolic syndrome, which may alter the endogenous characteristics and impair the reparative capacity of stem cells and their daughter EVs. This brief review summarizes evidence of alterations in the morphology, cargo, and function of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and MSC-derived EVs in the...
Source: Am J Physiol Renal P... - Category: Urology & Nephrology Authors: Tags: Am J Physiol Renal Physiol Source Type: research
In conclusion, our findings link the calcification of the vascular tissue with the expression of FGF23 in the vessels and with the elevation of circulating levels this hormone. Permanently Boosting Levels of Natural Killer Cells in Mice to Increase Cancer Resistance https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2019/09/permanently-boosting-levels-of-natural-killer-cells-in-mice-to-increase-cancer-resistance/ Researchers here demonstrate a very interesting approach to immunotherapy: they introduce engineered stem cells in mice that will give rise to additional natural killer T cells, boosting the capability of the ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Discussion of Developmental Effects on Aging Microtubule Function and Longevity in Nematodes Quantifying the Correlation Between Poverty and Faster Pace of Aging Matthew O'Connor Presenting on Underdog Pharmaceuticals at Undoing Aging 2019 https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2019/09/matthew-oconnor-presenting-on-underdog-pharmaceuticals-at-undoing-aging-2019/ Here Matthew O'Connor of the SENS Research Foundation talks about the research that led to founding of Underdog Pharmaceuticals, a biotech startup incubated by the foundation to commercialize a means of targeting 7-ketocholesterol in atheroscleros...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
We examined human lung tissue from COPD patients and normal control subjects, and found a substantial increase in p16-expressing alveolar cells in COPD patients. Using a transgenic mouse deficient for p16, we demonstrated that lungs of mice lacking p16 were structurally and functionally resistant to CS-induced emphysema due to activation of IGF1/Akt regenerative and protective signaling. Fat Tissue Surrounds Skeletal Muscle to Accelerate Atrophy in Aging and Obesity https://www.fightaging.org/archives/2019/09/fat-tissue-surrounds-skeletal-muscle-to-accelerate-atrophy-in-aging-and-obesity/ Researchers her...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Authors: Li JS, Li B Abstract Renal failure is one of the most important causes of mortality and morbidity all over the world. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major clinical problem that affects up to 5% of all hospitalized patients. Although the kidney has a remarkable capacity for regeneration after acute injury, the mortality among patients with severe AKI remains dismally high, and in clinical practice, most patients cannot be cured completely and suffer from chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recently, the incidence and prevalence of CKD have increased, largely as a result of the enhanced prevalence of diabetes and ...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research
We examined 9293 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements of total cholesterol, free- and esterified cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, and particle concentration. Fourteen subclasses of decreasing size and their lipid constituents were analysed: six subclasses were very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), one intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL), three low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and four subclasses were high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Remnant lipoproteins were VLDL and IDL combined. Mean nonfasting cholesterol concentration was 72‚...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
In this study we show, for the first time, significant alterations in cholesterol efflux capacity in adolescents throughout the range of BMI, a relationship between six circulating adipocyte-derived EVs microRNAs targeting ABCA1 and cholesterol efflux capacity, and in vitro alterations of cholesterol efflux in macrophages exposed to visceral adipose tissue adipocyte-derived EVs acquired from human subjects. These results suggest that adipocyte-derived EVs, and their microRNA content, may play a critical role in the early pathological development of ASCVD. Commentary on the Developing UK Government Position on Hea...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
hBM ‚ÄźMSC‚Äźderived EV injections repaired the ultrastructural damage caused by Cd for apical and basolateral membranes and mitochondria of kidney proximal tubules, glomerular podocytes in female and male medaka. AbstractTreatment modalities for kidney disease caused by long ‚Äźterm exposure to heavy metals, such as cadmium (Cd), are limited. Often, chronic, long‚Äźterm environmental exposure to heavy metal is not recognized in the early stages; therefore, chelation therapy is not an effective option. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from stem cells have been demons trated to reduce disease pathology in both...
Source: Physiological Reports - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: Original Research Source Type: research
In conclusion, we show here that sEVs are responsible for mediating paracrine senescence and speculate that they could be involved in inducing bystander senescence during therapy-induced senescence or aging. In fact, when compared to soluble factors, sEVs have different biophysical and biochemical properties as they have a longer lifespan than do soluble factors and they are more resistant to protease degradation. The idea that blocking sEV secretion could be a potential therapeutic approach to alleviate senescence "spreading" during chemotherapy-induced senescence or in aging tissues presents itself as a very at...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Stem cells present in urine possess regenerative capacity to repair kidney injury. However, the unique characteristics of urinary stem cells (USC) from patients with diabetic nephropathy (d-USC) are unknown. The goal of this study was to investigate stemness properties in cell phenotype and regenerative potential of d-USC, compared to USC from healthy individuals.Methods: Thirty-six urine samples collected from patients (n=12, age range 60-75 years) with diabetic nephropathy (stages 3-4 stage chronic kidney disease [CKD]) were compared with 30 urine samples from healthy age-matched donors (n=10, age range 60-74 years).Resu...
Source: Theranostics - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
More News: Chronic Kidney Disease | Drugs & Pharmacology | Epidemiology | Gastroschisis Repair | Stem Cell Therapy | Stem Cells | Urology & Nephrology