Weight drives caspofungin pharmacokinetic variability in overweight and obese people: fractal power signatures beyond two-thirds or three-fourths

Hall RG 2nd, Swancutt MA, Meek C, Leff R, Gumbo T
Source: The Aspergillus Website - articles - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: news

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Obesity and its related diseases are increasing worldwide. One of the best therapeutic strategies for obesity management is through the inhibition of pancreatic lipase (PL) enzyme. So far orlistat is the only ...
Source: BMC Biotechnology - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
Abstract The gastrointestinal (GI) tract harbors a diverse population of microorganisms. While much work has been focused on the characterization of the bacterial community, very little is known about the fungal community, or mycobiota, in different animal species and chickens in particular. Here we characterized the biogeography of the mycobiota along the GI tract of day-28 broiler chicks and further examined its possible shift in response to bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD), a commonly used in-feed antibiotic, through Illumina sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region of fungal rRNA ge...
Source: Applied and Environmental Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Appl Environ Microbiol Source Type: research
This study was carried out in accordance with the recommendations of the ethics standards defined by the EU legislation on the use of experimental animals (2010/63/EU) and Czech animal welfare act. The protocol was approved by the Institute of Microbiology animal care and use committee (approval ID: 85/2015 and 108/2016). Diets and Experimental Design In most experiments, shortly after weaning, the mice were switched either to animal protein-based diet—control (aCD, 176 g/kg crude protein; Cat# C1000) and high-protein diet (aHPD, 514 g/kg crude protein; Cat# C1001) or plant protein-based diet—control (pCD, 17...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
This study has revealed the intestinal and hepatopancreas mycobiota of L. vannamei and the effects of diseases and seasonal variation to the mycobiota. Our study provides important guidance for Pacific white shrimp farming and sheds further insight on the fungal microbiota. Introduction The digestive system hosts a large number of microorganisms dominated by bacteria, which constitute an enormous microbial ecosystem called the microbiota (O’Hara and Shanahan, 2006; Clemente et al., 2012). The microbiota has multiple functions, such as the maintenance of the functional stability and metabolic balance in the di...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusions In conclusion, articles in this Research Topic made a very significant contribution to our understanding of the role played by environmental factors, dysbiotic conditions, and infections in triggering diseases. Since this is a rapidly expanding area of research, many other factors contributing to the onset of these diseases are not covered here. We are confident, however, that further studies will expand the list as well as bring a better understanding of mechanisms involved in the onset of autoimmune and autoinflammatory diseases. Author Contributions All authors listed have made a substantial, direct and i...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In this study, we attempted to find a DNA extraction protocol which could be effectively used to analyze both the bacterial and fungal community. We evaluated the effect of five DNA extraction methods (QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit, PureLinkTM Microbiome DNA Purification Kit, ZR Fecal DNA MiniPrepTM Kit, NucleoSpin® DNA Stool Kit, and IHMS protocol Q) on bacterial and fungal gut microbiome recovery using (i) a defined system of germ-free mice feces spiked with bacterial or fungal strains, and (ii) non-spiked human feces. In our experimental setup, we confirmed that the examined methods significantly differed in efficiency ...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
This study aimed to contribute to the need of finding new and more effective bioactive molecules against several of the earlier mentioned threats faced by human kind nowadays. For this, eighteen species from the Actinomycetales previously isolated from Erylus spp. sponges collected in Portuguese marine waters (Açores, Madeira, and continental shelf) were screened for antimicrobial, anti-cancer, anti-parasitic and anti-obesogenic activities. Materials and Methods Biological Material The bacteria under study belong to the order Actinomycetales within the phylum Actinobacteria and were isolated from marine sponges o...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Jewel Ann Joseph1,2,3, Simen Akkermans1,2,3, Philippe Nimmegeers1,2,3 and Jan F. M. Van Impe1,2,3* 1BioTeC+, Chemical and Biochemical Process Technology and Control, Department of Chemical Engineering, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium 2Optimization in Engineering Center-of-Excellence, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium 3CPMF2, Flemish Cluster Predictive Microbiology in Foods, Leuven, Belgium There is currently a worldwide trend to reduce sugar consumption. This trend is mostly met by the use of artificial non-nutritive sweeteners. However, these sweeteners have also been proven to have adverse health effects such as dizzines...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Abstract Agmatine, a natural polyamine produced from arginine by arginine decarboxylase, was first discovered in 1910, but its physiological significance was disregarded for a century. The recent rediscovery of agmatine as an endogenous ligand for α2-adrenergic and imidazoline receptors in the mammalian brain suggests that this amine may be a promising therapeutic agent for treating a broad spectrum of central nervous system-associated diseases. In the past two decades, numerous preclinical and several clinical studies have demonstrated its pleiotropic modulatory functions on various molecular targets relate...
Source: Amino Acids - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Amino Acids Source Type: research
Abstract Koji, which is manufactured by proliferating non-pathogenic fungus Aspergillus oryzae on steamed rice, is the base for Japanese traditional fermented foods. We have revealed that koji and related Japanese fermented foods and drinks such as amazake, shio-koji, unfiltered sake and miso contain abundant glycosylceramide. Here, we report that feeding of koji glycosylceramide to obese mice alters the cholesterol metabolism . Liver cholesterol was significantly decreased in obese mice fed with koji glycosylceramide. We hypothesized that their liver cholesterol was decreased because it was converted to bile acid...
Source: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Biosci Biotechnol Biochem Source Type: research
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