Yellow fever – Nigeria

On 29 August 2019, a suspected yellow fever case was reported from Kano state with a travel history to Yankari game reserve, Alkaleri Local Government Area (LGA), Bauchi state, Nigeria. From 29 August through 22 September 2019, Nigeria reported an outbreak of yellow fever with an epi-centre in the Yankari game reserve of Alkaleri LGA, Bauchi state. According to Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC), 231 suspected cases have been reported in four states including Bauchi (110), Borno (109), Gombe (10), and Kano (2), of which there have been 13 presumptive positive by IgM testing and 24 cases positive by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at national laboratories. Of 24 cases confirmed by RT-PCR (20 cases in Bauchi, three in Gombe and one in Kano state), six deaths were reported, all from Alkaleri LGA, Bauchi state, resulting in a case fatality ratio of 25% among the confirmed cases. The vaccination history for the 231 suspected yellow fever cases is not known, and the results of follow-up testing from regional reference laboratory Institute Pasteur Dakar (IPD) are not yet available.
Source: WHO Disease Outbreaks - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: news Source Type: news

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This study showed that conflicting information about vaccine safety led to concern about miscarriage. Furthermore, it was believed that vaccination during gestation would concurrently immunize the fetus by transplacental antibody transfer. Consultation of health workers at the vaccination site led to diverse recommendations. When vaccinating pregnant women, clear health communication is crucial. Vaccine recommendations should be obeyed, and health workers should be trained to address emerging vaccine concerns. Pregnant women should be informed that a booster dose is recommended to achieve lifelong immunity. After pregnancy...
Source: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
A young boy in Pakistan receives an oral polio vaccine (OPV). Credit: Ashfaq Yusufzai/IPSBy Laura MackenzieMay 6 2020 (IPS) Interruptions to vaccination programmes caused by the COVID-19 pandemic could result in new waves of measles or polio outbreaks, health experts warn. A growing number of one-off immunisation campaigns and national routine vaccine introductions are being delayed amid social distancing and other measures to curb the spread of SARS-CoV-2, leaving millions unprotected. With both preventive campaigns and routine immunisations impacted, “we’ll have an increasing number of children who will becom...
Source: IPS Inter Press Service - Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Tags: Global Headlines Health TerraViva United Nations Source Type: news
CONCLUSION: The amotosalen/UVA PR system inactivated high titers of infectious YFV-17D in PC. This PR technology could reduce the risk of YFV TTI and help secure PC supplies in areas experiencing YFV outbreaks where massive vaccination campaigns are required. PMID: 31957887 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Transfusion - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: Transfusion Source Type: research
From 3 November through 8 December 2019, three laboratory confirmed cases of yellow fever including two deaths (case fatality rate = 67%) were detected through the national surveillance system in Mali. The first case-patient was a 15-year-old girl from a village in Kati district, Koulikoro region, Mali. The second and third case were in 17 and 25-year-old men, nationals from Cote d'Ivoire, living in the district of Bouguimi, Sikasso region, Mali. All three cases tested positive for yellow fever by Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on 3 December 2019 at Institute Pasteur Dak...
Source: WHO Disease Outbreaks - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: news Source Type: news
CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the use of fractional dosing as a strategy for mitigating vaccine shortages. The strategy should be specifically considered for individuals who are young, immuno-competent and well nourished. PMID: 31859201 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewAs research efforts have advanced to understand the pathophysiology of viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHF) and other epidemic viral infections and develop medical countermeasures such as vaccines, pregnant women have remained an underexamined subgroup. To better understand the implications of future outbreaks of VHF for pregnant women amidst an evolving vaccine landscape, we examine three pathogens —yellow fever, Ebola, and Lassa fever—each with different levels of evidence and understanding of disease in pregnancy and at varying stages of vaccine development.Recent FindingsThere are very li...
Source: Current Tropical Medicine Reports - Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 20 November 2019Source: Journal of Theoretical BiologyAuthor(s): Zhimin Chen, Kaihui Liu, Xiuxiang Liu, Yijun LouAbstractThe control strategies of emergency infectious diseases are constrained by limited medical resources. The fractional dose vaccination strategy as one of feasible strategies was proposed in response to global shortages of vaccine stockpiles. Although a variety of epidemic models have been developed under the circumstances of limited resources in treatment, few models particularly investigated vaccination strategies in resource-limited settings. In this paper, we develop ...
Source: Journal of Theoretical Biology - Category: Biology Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThis decade has seen a resurgence of yellow fever (YF) that has also affected travelers with a record number of international travelers infected by YF virus including the first documented importation of YF into Asia.Recent FindingsThe recent resurgence of YF has been attributed largely to sub-optimal vaccination coverage along with waning population-level immunity. New lessons have been learnt with regard to the clinical management of severe YF as a result of the Brazilian outbreak. With increasing YF cases in travelers, travel medicine providers need to familiarize themselves with the diagnosis an...
Source: Current Infectious Disease Reports - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Lassa fever outbreaks West Africa have caused up to 10,000 deaths annually. Primary infection occurs from contact with Lassa virus-infected rodents and exposure to their excreta, blood, or meat. Incubation takes 2 to 21  days. Symptoms are difficult to distinguish from malaria, typhoid, dengue, yellow fever, and other viral hemorrhagic fevers. Clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic, to mild, to severe fulminant disease. Ribavirin can improve outcomes. Overall mortality is between 1% and 15%. Lassa fever s hould be considered in the differential diagnosis with travel to West Africa. There is an urgent need for...
Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS This study contributed to the knowledge on the profile of confirmed cases of high severity yellow fever. The main factors associated with death were changes in renal excretion and elevated serum transaminases, especially ALT. High lethality emphasizes the need for early diagnosis and treatment, and the importance of increasing vaccination coverage.RESUMO OBJETIVO Descrever o perfil cl ínico-epidemiológico dos casos confirmados de febre amarela internados em hospital geral de referência para doenças infecciosas no estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, de 11 de março de 2017 a 15 de ...
Source: Revista de Saude Publica - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
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