Structural and functional analyses reveal promiscuous and species specific use of ephrin receptors by Cedar virus Microbiology

Cedar virus (CedV) is a bat-borne henipavirus related to Nipah virus (NiV) and Hendra virus (HeV), zoonotic agents of fatal human disease. CedV receptor-binding protein (G) shares only ∼30% sequence identity with those of NiV and HeV, although they can all use ephrin-B2 as an entry receptor. We demonstrate that...
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research

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SUMMARY: When preparing for the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic and its effects on the CNS, radiologists should be familiar with neuroimaging appearances in past zoonotic infectious disease outbreaks. Organisms that have crossed the species barrier from animals to humans include viruses such as Hendra, Nipah, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, and influenza, as well as bacteria and others. Brain CT and MR imaging findings have included cortical abnormalities, microinfarction in the white matter, large-vessel occlusion, and features of meningitis. In particular, the high sensitivity of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in det...
Source: American Journal of Neuroradiology - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: ADULT BRAIN Source Type: research
Research in the last decade has uncovered many new paramyxoviruses, airborne agents that cause epidemic diseases in animals including humans. Most paramyxoviruses enter epithelial cells of the airway using sialic acid as a receptor and cause only mild disease. However, others cross the epithelial barrier and cause more severe disease. For some of these viruses, the host receptors have been identified, and the mechanisms of cell entry have been elucidated. The tetrameric attachment proteins of paramyxoviruses have vastly different binding affinities for their cognate receptors, which they contact through different binding s...
Source: Journal of Biological Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: JBC Reviews Source Type: research
Nadine Krüger The Ghana virus (GhV) is phylogenetically related to the zoonotic henipaviruses Nipah (NiV) and Hendra virus. Although GhV uses the highly conserved receptor ephrin-B2, the fusogenicity is restricted to cell lines of bat origin. Furthermore, the surface expression of the GhV attachment glycoprotein (G) is reduced compared to NiV and most of this protein is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here, we generated truncated as well as chimeric GhV G proteins and investigated the influence of the structural domains (cytoplasmic tail, transmembrane domain, ectodomain) of this protein on the intrac...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
A recent outbreak of Nipah virus (NiV) in India has caused 17 deaths among people living in districts of Kerala state. Its zoonotic nature as well as high rate of human-to-human transmission has led researchers worldwide to work high for understanding the different aspects of the NiV. We performed a codon usage analysis based on publicly available nucleotide sequences of NiV and its host adaptation along with other members of genus Henipavirus in ten hosts. NiV genome encodes nine open reading frames; and overall, no significant bias in codon usage was observed. Aromaticity of proteins had no impact on codon usage. An anal...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
This study investigated the presence of Henipa- and related viruses in the Egyptian Rousette bat in South Africa as well as determining potential excretion in urine over time.
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: 19.007 Source Type: research
Publication date: February 2019Source: Current Opinion in Virology, Volume 34Author(s): Lin-Fa Wang, Danielle E AndersonIn the last two decades, several high impact zoonotic disease outbreaks have been linked to bat-borne viruses. These include SARS coronavirus, Hendra virus and Nipah virus. In addition, it has been suspected that ebolaviruses and MERS coronavirus are also linked to bats. It is being increasingly accepted that bats are potential reservoirs of a large number of known and unknown viruses, many of which could spillover into animal and human populations. However, our knowledge into basic bat biology and immuno...
Source: Current Opinion in Virology - Category: Virology Source Type: research
This study was carried out to screen for the presence antibodies to Nipah virus soluble G protein (NiV sG), Nipah virus N protein (NiVN), Nipah virus soluble F protein (NiV sF), Hendra virus soluble G protein (HeV sG), Zaire Ebola virus G protein (EboV G), Cedar virus soluble G protein (CedV sG) and Menangle virus N protein (MenVN) in Eidolon helvum captured in Zaria, Nigeria.
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: UMP. 232 Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe review summarizes the history of the emergence of the Henipviruses, provides a general introduction of their molecular biology and the efforts to develop antiviral treatment strategies, including the successful development of a veterinary vaccine.Recent FindingsParamyxoviridae, genusHenipavirus comprises emerging pathogens detected in Southeast Asia, Australia and Africa. Henipaviruses are enveloped with non-segmented, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA molecules and are distinguished from other Paramyxoviruses by a substantially larger RNA genome. Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are ...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
In this study, we evaluated the antiviral activity of the nucleoside analog 4′-azidocytidine (4′N3-C, R1479) and its 2′-monofluoro- and 2′-difluoro-modified analogs (2′F-4′N3-C and 2′diF-4′N3-C) against representative paramyxoviruses (Nipah virus, Hendra virus, measles virus, and human parainfluenza virus 3) and filoviruses (Ebola virus, Sudan virus, and Ravn virus). We observed enhanced antiviral activity against paramyxoviruses with both 2′diF-4′N3-C and 2′F-4′N3-C compared to R1479. On the other hand, while R1479 and 2′diF-4′N3-C inhibit...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
In this study, we evaluated the antiviral activity of the nucleoside analog 4'-azidocytidine (4'N3-C, R1479) and its 2'-monofluoro- and 2'-difluoro-modified analogs (2'F-4'N3-C and 2'diF-4'N3-C) against representative paramyxoviruses (Nipah virus, Hendra virus, measles virus, and human parainfluenza virus 3) and filoviruses (Ebola virus, Sudan virus, and Ravn virus). We observed enhanced antiviral activity against paramyxoviruses with both 2'diF-4'N3-C and 2'F-4'N3-C compared to R1479. On the other hand, while R1479 and 2'diF-4'N3-C inhibited filoviruses similarly to paramyxoviruses, we observed 10-fold lower filovirus inh...
Source: Antiviral Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research
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