Nutritional Models of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Nutritional Models of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Methods Mol Biol. 2020;2076:43-69 Authors: Mühlhäusler BS, Toop C, Gentili S Abstract In order to better understand the events that precede and precipitate the onset of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), several nutritional animal models have been developed. These models are generated by manipulating the diet of either the animal itself, or its mother during her pregnancy, and in comparison to traditional genetic and knock out models, have the advantage that they more accurately reflect the etiology of human T2DM. This chapter will discuss some of the most widely used nutritional models of T2DM: Diet-induced obesity (DIO) in adult rodents, and studies of offspring of mothers fed a low-protein, high-fat and/or high-sugar diet during pregnancy and/or lactation. Several common mechanisms have been identified through which these nutritional manipulations can lead to metabolic disease, including pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction, impaired insulin signaling in skeletal muscle, and the excess accumulation of visceral adipose tissue and consequent deposition of nonesterified fatty acids in peripheral tissues. In addition, there is an emerging concept that obesity/poor quality diets result in increased production and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from adipose tissue leading to a state of chronic low-grade inflammation, and that this is likely to represent an important link between obesity/diet and metabolic dy...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research

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AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo provide an updated synopsis of the research and clinical practice findings on pregnancy and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in American Indian and Alaska Native (AIAN) adolescents and to describe the newly developed “Stopping GDM,” an early intervention, culturally tailored risk reduction program for AIAN girls and their mothers.Recent FindingsFive research articles met our inclusion criteria. Three retrospective quantitative studies published in the past 10  years corroborated a 1.5 to 2 times higher prevalence for GDM for all age groups in the AIAN population as compared t...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Authors: D'Anna R, Santamaria A, Alibrandi A, Corrado F, DI Benedetto A, Facchinetti F Abstract Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is one of the most frequent complications of pregnancy and is characterized by a carbohydrate intolerance which is diagnosed with the oral glucose tolerance test. The prevalence of GDM in our population is about 12%, but risk factors like a previous GDM, ethnicity, a parent with diabetes mellitus type 2 and maternal overweight may increase its occurrence. Complications of GDM are a pre-term birth (before 37 wk gestation), macrosomia (birth weight ≥4 kg) and gestational hypertension....
Source: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology - Category: Nutrition Tags: J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: More studies should be conducted to prove the most effective nutritional intervention in GDM. Regarding the potential effectiveness of MI, further evidences in multicenter , randomized controlled trials are needed to draw firm conclusions. PMID: 31333107 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
 Targeting Glycemic Level in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus to that of Normal Pregnancy would result in a better Maternal-Fetal Outcome. J Assoc Physicians India. 2019 Apr;67(4):66-70 Authors: Seshiah V, Kapur A, Balaji V, Shah SN, Das AK, Diwakar H, Banerjee S, Anjalakshi C Abstract Abstract: Women with a history of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) are at increased risk of future diabetes and related Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD) as are their offspring. "Transgenerational transmission occurs". Independent of genetic risk, offspring of hyperglycaemic pregnancies are at increased risk...
Source: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India - Category: General Medicine Tags: J Assoc Physicians India Source Type: research
ConclusionsThere is neither concerted effort to diagnose GDM, nor systematic records of screening and postpartum follow-up. The gap in diabetology knowledge and practice calls for re-training of antenatal healthcare professionals. GDM screening checklist needs to be established and positive results entered into GDM registers for proper management during and after delivery.
Source: Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research and Reviews - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewTo present current data on the coexistence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults and children and to discuss possible mechanisms.Recent FindingsEmerging data suggest that risk factors for obesity and insulin resistance such as diabetes during pregnancy and intrauterine growth failure may also have a role in the development of ADHD. Furthermore, ADHD and obesity share lifestyle factors, such as abnormal eating patterns, binge eating, and a sedentary lifestyle. ADHD is a risk factor for components of the metabolic syndrome...
Source: Current Diabetes Reports - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Dominique E. Martin1,2, Amanda K. Jones1,3, Sambhu M. Pillai1,4, Maria L. Hoffman1,5, Katelyn K. McFadden1,6, Steven A. Zinn1, Kristen E. Govoni1 and Sarah A. Reed1* 1Department of Animal Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, United States 2Department of Psychology, Providence College, Providence, RI, United States 3Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of Colorado, Aurora, Aurora, CO, United States 4School of Medicine, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, United States 5Department of Fisheries, Animal and Veterinary Sciences, The University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI, United St...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Wenxin Zhang1, Wei Xia1, Wenyu Liu1, Xinping Li1, Jie Hu1, Bin Zhang2, Shunqing Xu1, Yanqiu Zhou3, Jiufeng Li3, Zongwei Cai3* and Yuanyuan Li1* 1Key Laboratory of Environment and Health (HUST), Ministry of Education and Ministry of Environmental Protection, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Health (Incubation), School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China 2Wuhan Children's Hospital (Wuhan Maternal and Child Healthcare Hospital), Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China 3State Key Laboratory of Env...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Maunil K. Desai1 and Roberta Diaz Brinton2,3* 1School of Pharmacy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, United States 2Center for Innovation in Brain Science, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States 3Departments of Pharmacology and Neurology, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, United States Women have a higher incidence and prevalence of autoimmune diseases than men, and 85% or more patients of multiple autoimmune diseases are female. Women undergo sweeping endocrinological changes at least twice during their lifetime, puberty and menopause, with many women undergoin...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
This study aimed to compare the effect of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with moderate-intensity continuous training (MCT) on endothelial function, oxidative stress and clinical fitness in patients with type 1 diabetes. Thirty-six type 1 diabetic patients (mean age 23.5 ± 6 years) were randomized into 3 groups: HIIT, MCT, and a non-exercising group (CON). Exercise was performed in a stationary cycle ergometers during 40 min, 3 times/week, for 8 weeks at 50–85% maximal heart rate (HRmax) in HIIT and 50% HRmax in MCT. Endothelial function was measured by flow-mediated dilation (FMD) [endothelium-depende...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
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