Nutritional Models of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Nutritional Models of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Methods Mol Biol. 2020;2076:43-69 Authors: Mühlhäusler BS, Toop C, Gentili S Abstract In order to better understand the events that precede and precipitate the onset of type 2 diabetes (T2DM), several nutritional animal models have been developed. These models are generated by manipulating the diet of either the animal itself, or its mother during her pregnancy, and in comparison to traditional genetic and knock out models, have the advantage that they more accurately reflect the etiology of human T2DM. This chapter will discuss some of the most widely used nutritional models of T2DM: Diet-induced obesity (DIO) in adult rodents, and studies of offspring of mothers fed a low-protein, high-fat and/or high-sugar diet during pregnancy and/or lactation. Several common mechanisms have been identified through which these nutritional manipulations can lead to metabolic disease, including pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction, impaired insulin signaling in skeletal muscle, and the excess accumulation of visceral adipose tissue and consequent deposition of nonesterified fatty acids in peripheral tissues. In addition, there is an emerging concept that obesity/poor quality diets result in increased production and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from adipose tissue leading to a state of chronic low-grade inflammation, and that this is likely to represent an important link between obesity/diet and metabolic dy...
Source: Mol Biol Cell - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research

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Aberrant fetal programming in gestational diabetes (GDM) appears to increase the risk for obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. The inability to identify accurately GDM in the first trimester has thwarted ascertaining whether early therapeutic interventions reduce the predisposition to these prevalent medical disorders.
Source: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Authors: Tags: Original Research: Obstetrics Source Type: research
Abstract Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) increases the risk for short-term adverse perinatal outcomes for mothers and their infants. In addition, women with GDM are at increased risk for type 2 diabetes, and their offspring also face long-term risk for diabetes and obesity. Women who develop GDM have a high rate of recurrence in subsequent pregnancies. However, prevention of GDM remains a significant challenge. Weight gain during pregnancy has not been consistently associated with development of GDM, and dietary and physical activity interventions have shown only modest benefit in reducing the risk for GDM. ...
Source: BJOG : An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology - Category: OBGYN Authors: Tags: BJOG Source Type: research
Abstract Obesity and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) are the most frequent pathologies affecting mothers and offspring during pregnancy. Both conditions have shown a sustained increase in their prevalence in recent years, and they worsen the outcome of pregnancy and the long-term health of mothers. Obesity increases the risk of GDM and preeclampsia during pregnancy and elevates the risk of developing metabolic syndrome in later life. Offspring of obese mothers have an increased risk of obstetric morbidity and mortality and, consistent with the developmental origins of health and disease, a long term risk of ch...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research
Clinical practice guidelines on diabetes mellitus and pregnancy: Ι. Pre-existing type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Hormones (Athens). 2020 May 15;: Authors: Anastasiou E, Farmakidis G, Gerede A, Goulis DG, Koukkou E, Kourtis A, Mamopoulos A, Papadimitriou K, Papadopoulos V, Stefos T Abstract Women with type 1 (T1DM) or type 2 diabetes (T2DM) diagnosed prior to pregnancy are classified as having pre-existing diabetes mellitus (DM). The prevalence of hyperglycemia in pregnancy has been estimated at 17% globally and 5.4% in Europe, differences existing among racial and ethnic groups, following the...
Source: Hormones - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Hormones (Athens) Source Type: research
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as impaired glucose tolerance recognized during pregnancy. GDM is associated with metabolic disorder phenotypes, such as obesity, low-grade inflammation, and insulin resistance. Following delivery, nearly half of the women with a history of GDM have persistent postpartum glucose intolerance and an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), as much as 7-fold. The alarming upward trend may worsen the socioeconomic burden worldwide. Accumulating evidence strongly associates gut microbiota dysbiosis in women with GDM, similar to the T2DM profile. Several metagen...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Metformin therapy in pregnancy [Zastosowanie metforminy w ciąży]. Endokrynol Pol. 2020;71(2):184-195 Authors: Krupej-Kędzierska J, Cichocka E, Kędzierski L, Okopień B, Gumprecht J Abstract Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), i.e. a carbohydrate metabolism disorder at pregnancy, is one of the most common metabolic complications that occur during this period. Pancreatic b-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance during pregnancy are considered the main causes of the condition. It is currently estimated that GDM is confirmed in 1-25% of patients. Diagnosis and appropriate management allow to reduce ...
Source: Endokrynologia Polska - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Endokrynol Pol Source Type: research
Abstract Human health and environmental risks are increasing following air pollution associated with vehicular and industrial emissions in which particulate matter is a constituent. The purpose of this review was to assess studies on the health effects and mortality induced by particles published for the last 15 years. The literature survey indicated the existence of strong positive associations between fine and ultrafine particles' exposure and cardiovascular, hypertension, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer health risks, and mortality. Its exposure is also associated with increased odds of hypertensive...
Source: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Environ Sci Pollut Res Int Source Type: research
The aim of this work was to evaluate metabolic changes during pregnancy within the polygenic NZO mouse model and if it is a suitable one for the human disease. NZO mice showed early alterations in glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion, but no overt diabetes. Interestingly, the preconceptionally impaired glucose tolerance did not deteriorate during gestation despite a proliferation defect of Langerhans islets. AbstractGestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a complex metabolic disease involving genetic and environmental factors. Recent studies have underlined its heterogeneity, so it is reasonable to divide patients into...
Source: Physiological Reports - Category: Physiology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
Conclusion Compared with lean individuals, mothers with obesity and DM have relative deficiencies in insulin exposure. The patterns observed in mothers with obesity and diabetes were similar highlighting the importance of the maternal metabolic environment in obesity and suggesting obese patients warrant further clinical focus. [...] Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.Article in Thieme eJournals: Table of contents  |  Abstract  |  Full text
Source: American Journal of Perinatology - Category: Perinatology & Neonatology Authors: Tags: SMFM Fellows Research Series Source Type: research
Authors: Kawasaki M, Arata N, Sakamoto N, Osamura A, Sato S, Ogawa Y, Yasuhi I, Waguri M, Hiramatsu Y Abstract For women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), the evaluation of glucose tolerance (GT) in the early postpartum period is universally recommended. Nevertheless, few studies have evaluated the risk factors for T2DM on the basis of GT data obtained during the early postpartum period. We aimed to identify the risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by evaluating GT in the first 12 weeks postpartum (12wPP) in women with GDM and to categorize the risk using a combination of the principal risk fact...
Source: Endocrine Journal - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Endocr J Source Type: research
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