Children with dyslexia show an inhibition domain-specific deficit in reading

AbstractChildren with dyslexia face persistent difficulties in acquiring reading skills, often making guessing errors characterized by the replacement of a word by an orthographic neighbour. These reading errors could be related to inhibition problems within the reading task. Previous studies examining inhibition skills in dyslexic children led to unclear results when inhibition in cognitive and non-reading tasks was evaluated. The present study aims to demonstrate whether dyslexic children have a specific reading inhibition deficit or if they have a general inhibition deficit. Eighteen dyslexic children (age range: 106 –131 months, in Grade 4) were matched to typically developing children on both chronological age (age range: 109–128 months, in Grade 4), and on reading level (age range: 87–98 months, in Grade 2). All children were asked to perform (i) a cognitive inhibition task based on fruit colours; (i i) a reading inhibition task, consisting of reading sentences in which an expected word was replaced by a orthographic neighbour. Our results demonstrated that dyslexic children performed equally compared to the two control groups in the cognitive inhibition task, whilst they read the sentences less accurately than the two control groups in the reading inhibition task, and they were slower than children of the same age. Therefore, our results clearly demonstrate that dyslexic children have an inhibition deficit specific to the reading task. ...
Source: Reading and Writing - Category: Child Development Source Type: research

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Abstract Reading and language abilities are critical for educational achievement and success in adulthood. Variation in these traits is highly heritable, but the underlying genetic architecture is largely undiscovered. Genetic studies of reading and language skills traditionally focus on children with developmental disorders; however, much larger unselected adult samples are available, increasing power to identify associations with specific genetic variants of small effect size. We introduce an Australian adult population cohort (41.7-73.2 years of age, N = 1505) in which we obtained data using validated measures ...
Source: Twin Research and Human Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Twin Res Hum Genet Source Type: research
Objective: The epidemiological studies of Chinese developmental dyslexia (DD) in China are still limited. The current study aimed to investigate the prevalence rate, risk factors, and psychiatric comorbidities of Chinese DD in Guangzhou, a city in South China. Method: A total of 1661 students from second to fifth grades were recruited. The dyslexic students were identified by evaluating learning disability through the Pupil Rating Scale–Revised Screening for Learning Disability (PRS) scale by the head teachers and word recognition through the standard test. Students with a PRS score of
Source: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics - Category: Child Development Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Discussion Memory is an important part of what distinguishes higher order species from others. Memory also is part of one’s self-identity. Difficulties in short-term memory can make common, everyday tasks difficult for the person experiencing the problem particularly if it recently occurred and the person’s long-term memory is intact. Difficulties with long-term memory can also have problems when language, events or even one’s own identity are affected. For some people the memory loss is temporary but for others, memory impairments are permanent and must be accepted and accommodated as part of the overall...
Source: PediatricEducation.org - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Source Type: news
Miguel ES Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate (1) whether a sample of highly educated individuals with dyslexia living under optimal personal, educational, cultural, and socioeconomic conditions continues to display core deficits in reading and writing skills during adulthood (extending prior results in Dutch, English, Hebrew, and Spanish to the Portuguese writing system); (2) whether these individuals can compensate for the effects of persistent core deficits when reading complex academic texts; (3) which cognitive resources, such as reading strategies, are used as compensatory mechanisms; and (4) ...
Source: Annals of Dyslexia - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Ann Dyslexia Source Type: research
Condition:   Dyslexia, Developmental Intervention:   Behavioral: Lindamood-Bell Seeing Stars Sponsor:   Stanford University Recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
Online training and support for activists UNISON is setting up an online system to continue key training for activist during the current crisis caused by the coronavirus pandemic, when we have had to postpone all face-to-face training and learning opportunities for members. In the meantime, we have quadrupled the capacity of our online couse for new stewards. There are now 100 places available – click on the link below to find out how to register. Our online new stewards’ course is supported by both a TUC tutor and a UNISON learning and organising staff member. We will be ther...
Source: UNISON meat hygiene - Category: Food Science Authors: Tags: News activist education activist training coronavirus Covid-19 learning and organising Source Type: news
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Source: Aphasiology - Category: Speech-Language Pathology Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract Over the last years, several studies have suggested a possible link between dyslexia and deficits in low-level visual processing (e.g., excessive crowding). At the same time, specially designed "dyslexia-friendly" fonts appeared on the market. This class of fonts presents two main features: the particular graphic characteristics of the letterform designed to avoid confusion between similarly shaped letters, and wider inter-letter and inter-word spacing to limit crowding. The literature testing the efficacy of "dyslexia-friendly" fonts in improving reading accuracy and increasing readin...
Source: Annals of Dyslexia - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Ann Dyslexia Source Type: research
Abstract Visual perception is often not homogenous across the visual field and can vary depending on situational demands. The reasons behind this inhomogeneity are not clear. Here we show that directing attention that is consistent with a western reading habit from left to right, results in a ~32% higher sensitivity to detect transient visual events in the right hemifield. This right visual field advantage was largely reduced in individuals with reading difficulties from developmental dyslexia. Similarly, visual detection became more symmetric in skilled readers, when attention was guided opposite to the reading p...
Source: Vision Research - Category: Opthalmology Authors: Tags: Vision Res Source Type: research
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