High level of exposure to hepatitis B virus infection in a vulnerable population of a low endemic area: a challenge for vaccination coverage

Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research

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This study was conducted to explore the anti-HBV immune response among children under 6 years old, vaccinated according to the national vaccination schedule, by evaluating the immunological response to primary vaccination and by exploring the anamnestic immune response to a booster dose.Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional prospective study from June 2016 to June 2017 (n=180), based on voluntary participation. Children were recruited from the public pediatric ward sectors in Sahloul University Hospital of Sousse in Central Tunisia. An anti-HB titre was determined based on electro-chemiluminescence micro-particle immunoa...
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research
In countries where hepatitis B virus (HBV) is endemic, including Senegal, the World Health Organization recommends systematic HBV screening of pregnant women and vaccination at birth to prevent mother-to-child...
Source: BMC Health Services Research - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
Contemporary clinicians who provide obstetric care acknowledge screening of pregnant women for perinatally transmissible infectious diseases as a routine component of prenatal care, although this has not always been the case. For example, prenatal screening for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection only began to be discussed after rigorous trials conducted in the 1970s and 1980s in high-endemic areas demonstrated that identification of chronically infected pregnant women followed by targeted neonatal immunoprophylaxis (hepatitis B immunoglobulin and the first dose of HBV vaccine) significantly lowered the risk of chronic infec...
Source: JAMA - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Conclusion: A significant proportion of pregnant women have anti-HBs while the seroprevalence of HCV is low among pregnant women in the city of Mwanza. Routine screening of HBV among pregnant women coupled with appropriate management should be emphasized in developing countries. Further studies to determine seroprevalence of HCV are recommended across the country. PMID: 31316835 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of Pregnancy - Category: OBGYN Tags: J Pregnancy Source Type: research
This study estimated the frequency of viral hepatitis by occupational and non-occupational infections and analyzed the factors associated with case notifications in Brazil from 2007 to 2014. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was an exploratory epidemiological study using the Notifiable Diseases Information System database. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were performed. RESULTS: The frequency of viral hepatitis by occupational infections was 0.7%, of which 1.3% were due to hepatitis A virus (HAV), 45.1% hepatitis B virus (HBV), and 45.3% hepatitis C virus (HCV). There was a significant association of the disease wit...
Source: Annals of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Ann Hepatol Source Type: research
Chronic hepatitis B is a global health problem affecting approximately 350 million to 400 million individuals worldwide, and mother to child transmission remains the major mode of transmission. Approximately 50% of chronically infected individuals acquire infection, either perinatally or early in childhood, predominantly in areas where hepatitis B virus (HBV) is endemic. Management of HBV in pregnancy presents a unique set of challenges. All infants born of hepatitis B surface antigen –positive mothers should receive postexposure immune prophylaxis with hepatitis B immunoglobulin and HBV vaccination within 24 ho...
Source: Clinics in Liver Disease - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Source Type: research
Over the past two decades, progress in understanding human infections with hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been eclipsed by the priority of combating persistent hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. During that time, the global burden of liver disease caused by enteric hepatitis viruses has not abated. Because of vaccines, hepatitis A has become increasingly a disease of adults instead of early childhood in many regions of the world, resulting in an age-related shift toward more severe disease. HEV has remained endemic in many developing countries, and in well-developed, ec...
Source: Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in medicine - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Enteric Hepatitis Viruses PERSPECTIVES Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated that the rate of seroprotection in the current vaccination programme against HBV in DRC was lower than desirable but comparable to rates reported in some other African countries. Further studies are needed to assess this finding and to evaluate ways to optimise the seroprotection rate. PMID: 31131798 [PubMed - in process]
Source: South African Medical Journal - Category: African Health Tags: S Afr Med J Source Type: research
ConclusionEradication of HBV is achievable with optimal management of HBV carriers, especially during pregnancy by interruption of vertical transmission. Routine antenatal screening and neonatal immunoprophylaxis remain the key measures to reduce the global HBV burden, and additional antenatal antiviral treatment could further minimize the chance of persistent infection in newborns.
Source: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Hepatitis B vaccine is the mainstay of hepatitis B prevention. Safe injection practices, blood safety and promoting wider access to monitoring and screening, care and treatment services for hepatitis B are the best guarantees to prevent and control this disease. PMID: 31060884 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Revue d Epidemiologie et de Sante Publique - Category: Epidemiology Tags: Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique Source Type: research
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