CAR T cell therapy: A new era for cancer treatment (Review).

CAR T cell therapy: A new era for cancer treatment (Review). Oncol Rep. 2019 Sep 24;: Authors: Mohanty R, Chowdhury CR, Arega S, Sen P, Ganguly P, Ganguly N Abstract Cancer has recently been identified as the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Several conventional treatments and cytotoxic immunotherapies have been developed and made available to the market. Considering the complex behavior of tumors and the involvement of numerous genetic and cellular factors involved in tumorigenesis and metastasis, there is a need to develop a promising immunotherapy that targets tumors at both the cellular and genetic levels. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy has emerged as a novel therapeutic T cell engineering practice, in which T cells derived from patient blood are engineered in vitro to express artificial receptors targeted to a specific tumor antigen. These directly identify the tumor antigen without the involvement of the major histocompatibility complex. The use of this therapy in the last few years has been successful, with a reduction in remission rates of up to 80% for hematologic cancer, particularly for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and non‑Hodgkin lymphomas, such as large B cell lymphoma. Recently, anti‑CD19 CAR therapy, or UCART19, has been shown to be efficacious in treating relapsed/refractory hematologic cancer. Several other cell surface tumor antigens, such as CD20 and CD22, found in the majority of leukemias and l...
Source: Oncology Reports - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncol Rep Source Type: research

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A promising and expensive type of immunotherapy, called CAR T-cell therapy, is now covered by Medicare. This news may affect mesothelioma patients in the future. Chimeric antigen receptor T-cell, or CAR T-cell, therapy involves the laboratory reprogramming of a patient’s T cells, which are a type of white blood cell responsible for protecting the body against infection and disease. The T cells are genetically modified to better recognize and attack cancer. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the immunotherapy procedure for non-Hodgkin lymphoma and B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. It is...
Source: Asbestos and Mesothelioma News - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Source Type: news
This study included 18 buffy coats collected from volunteer blood donors admitted to the blood transfusion service of IRCCS Bambino Gesù Pediatric Hospital after obtaining informed consent. The Ethical Committee of IRCCS Bambino Gesù Pediatric Hospital approved the study (825/2014) and conducted in accordance with the ethical principles stated in the Declaration of Helsinki. Cells Lines and Cell Culture NK-92 (malignant non-Hodgkin's lymphoma), K562 (chronic myelogenous leukemia, CD19−), Jurkat (acute T cell leukemia, CD19−) Karpas 299 (Human Non-Hodgkin's Ki-positive Large Cell ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusions This review describes how leukocyte-heparanase can be a double-edged sword in tumor progression; it can enhance tumor immune surveillance and tumor cell clearance, but also promote tumor survival and growth. We also discuss the potential of using heparanase in leukocyte therapies against tumors, and the effects of heparanase inhibitors on tumor progression and immunity. We are just beginning to understand the influence of heparanase on a pro/anti-tumor immune response, and there are still many questions to answer. How do the pro/anti-tumorigenic effects of heparanase differ across different cancer types? Does...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Reena Goswami1, Gayatri Subramanian2, Liliya Silayeva1, Isabelle Newkirk1, Deborah Doctor1, Karan Chawla2, Saurabh Chattopadhyay2, Dhyan Chandra3, Nageswararao Chilukuri1 and Venkaiah Betapudi1,4* 1Neuroscience Branch, Research Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen, MD, United States 2Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Toledo College of Medicine and Life Sciences, Toledo, OH, United States 3Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, NY, United States 4Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University, Clev...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
We report that the bifunctional compounds enhance the interactions between primary human neutrophils and A. fumigatus in vitro, using three microfluidic assay platforms. The bifunctional compounds significantly enhance the recruitment of neutrophils, increase hyphae killing by neutrophils in a uniform concentration of drug, and decrease hyphal tip growth velocity in the presence of neutrophils compared to the antifungal targeting moiety alone. We validated that the bifunctional compounds are also effective in vivo, using a zebrafish infection model with neutrophils expressing the appropriate EM receptor. We measured signif...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
AbstractThe advent of the genome editing era brings forth the promise of adoptive cell transfer using engineered chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells for targeted cancer therapy. CAR T cell immunotherapy is probably one of the most encouraging developments for the treatment of hematological malignancies. In 2017, two CAR T cell therapies were approved by the US Food and Drug Administration: one for the treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and the other for adult patients with advanced lymphomas. However, despite significant progress in the area, CAR T cell therapy is still in its early days and face...
Source: The AAPS Journal - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
For years, cancer treatment was dominated by chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and stem cell transplantation. New insights into genetic characteristics of leukemic cells have initiated the development of the chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy. This type of adoptive cell immunotherapy has been a breakthrough in the treatment of aggressive B-cell lymphoma and B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In August 2018, the European Commission has approved the first CAR T-cell products – tisagenlecleucel (Kymriah®, Novartis) and axicabtagene ciloleucel (Yescarta®, Gilead) – for hematological n...
Source: Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy - Category: Hematology Source Type: research
AbstractImmunotherapy has played an important part in improving the life of patients with lymphoproliferative diseases especially since the addition of rituximab to chemotherapy in the CD20-positive neoplasms in the 1990s. While this field of passive immunotherapy is continuously evolving, several breakthroughs will expand the treatment modalities to include more active immunotherapy. With the approval of immune checkpoint-blocking antibodies for Hodgkin lymphoma and bispecific antibodies for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), activation of endogenous T cells already plays a role in several lymphoid malignancies. With the...
Source: Seminars in Immunopathology - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
Last year, the Food and Drug Administration approved two new immunotherapies to treat certain leukemias and lymphomas. Now, in a study published in the New England Journal of Medicine, researchers detail who is most likely to benefit from the treatments, called CAR T cell therapy. CAR T cell therapy trains the body’s immune system to target and destroy cancer cells in the blood; scientists take people’s own immune cells (T cells) and genetically engineer them to seek out and destroy cancer cells. The immune system can then attack cancer cells in the same way it does bacteria and viruses, and the therapy can lea...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized Cancer cancer cells cancer immunotherapy CAR T car t cell therapy car t gene therapy car t therapy cure for cancer healthytime leukemia leukemia treatments Source Type: news
Chimeric antigen receptor approaches to cancer treatment involve taking a patient's T cells and equipping them with a new receptor that allows the immune cells to target specific characteristics of cancer cells. Despite the usual complications and challenges that tend to occur in the development of immunotherapies, involving potentially dangerous disruption of the immune system, this type of therapy has proven to be highly effective against blood cancers. It remains to be deployed against solid cancers, although researchers are well on their way towards reaching that goal, but there is every reason to expect it to be just ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
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