Ocular manifestations of herpes simplex virus

Purpose of review To review ocular manifestations and complications of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and discuss recent advancements in diagnostic and treatment strategy. Recent findings In-vivo confocal microscopy has expanded our understanding of corneal nerve degeneration, corneal dendritic cell activity, and changes in biomechanical properties in HSV keratitis. Although currently available only as a research tool, metagenomic deep sequencing has the potential to improve diagnostic accuracy beyond the well established PCR technology, especially in atypical cases. Development of an HSV vaccine has shown some encouraging results in a murine model. New treatment options for neurotrophic cornea offer promise, specifically cenegermin nerve growth factor. Summary Ocular herpes simplex infection and its complications continue to cause significant visual burden and decreased quality of life. Familiarity with its clinical features, wider adoption of viral PCR diagnostic technology, and recognition of the need for long-term maintenance medications for recurrent or chronic cases form the basis for effective management. Metagenomic deep sequencing, the development of a herpes vaccine, and cenegermin nerve growth factor offer promise as diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic options, respectively.
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Tags: OCULAR MANIFESTATIONS OF SYSTEMIC DISEASE: Edited by John A. Gonzales Source Type: research

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This study evaluated 12 of the most relevant ginsenosides from P. ginseng for toxicities and inhibition of herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2 in Vero cells. The effects of test compounds and virus infection were determined using a PrestoBlue cell viability assay. Time course studies were also conducted to better understand at what points the virus life cycle was affected. Non-toxic concentrations of the ginsenosides were determined and ranged from 12.5 µM to greater than 100 µM. Ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 demonstrated the greatest inhibitory effect and was active against both HSV-1 and HSV-2 with an IC50 of approx...
Source: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tags: J Microbiol Biotechnol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 4 November 2019Source: Antiviral ResearchAuthor(s): Michael Basic, Fabian Elgner, Daniela Bender, Catarina Sabino, Marie-Luise Herrlein, Hanna Roth, Mirco Glitscher, Alicia Fath, Thomas Kerl, Hans-Günther Schmalz, Eberhard HildtAbstractZika virus (ZIKV) is a re-emerging virus belonging to the family of Flaviviridae, which contains several human pathogens. A great deal of attention came through the association of ZIKV infection with an increasing number of microcephaly cases in newborns during the 2016 outbreak in Brazil. Currently, no anti-viral drug or vaccine is available.Houttuyno...
Source: Antiviral Therapy - Category: Virology Source Type: research
Conclusion: The patient's psychiatric symptoms were most likely caused by anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. Her polymorphic psychotic symptoms first occurred after she had received a Tdap-IPV booster vaccination. Although the vaccination cannot have caused the initial antibody formation since IgG serum antibodies were detected only 3 days after administration of the vaccine, the vaccine may have exerted immunomodulatory effects. MRI, EEG, and CSF findings were non-specific; however, FDG-PET identified brain involvement consistent with anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis. This case shows the importance of implementing a multimod...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Abstract Zika virus (ZIKV) is a re-emerging virus belonging to the family of Flaviviridae, which contains several human pathogens. A great deal of attention came through the association of ZIKV infection with an increasing number of microcephaly cases in newborns during the 2016 outbreak in Brazil. Currently, no anti-viral drug or vaccine is available. Houttuynoids are a group of structurally related flavonoid glycosides that can be isolated from Houttuynia cordata belonging to the family of Sauraceae. Moreover, H. cordata was described to have an antiviral effect on herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), human immu...
Source: Antiviral Research - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Antiviral Res Source Type: research
Opportunistic infections are those that are either more frequent or more severe as a result of the patient’s immunosuppressed condition. Opportunistic infections are, of course, the distinguishing feature of HIV infection, and they can be the cause of serious morbidity and even mortality. Some opportunistic infections can be prevented by vaccination, for example, pneumococcal infection, meningococcal infection, influenza, hepatitis A and B, and varicella. Other major opportunistic infections require prophylactic antibiotics or antiviral medications. In obstetric patients, pneumocystis infections and toxoplasmosis are...
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Tags: New Antibiotics and Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Obstetrics Source Type: research
In this study, a monoclonal antibody (MAb), designated as 3C1, was generated using naive BoHV-1 in vaccination of mice, demonstrating that 3C1 was specific to gD and represents a neutralizing activity against BoHV-1 infection in Madin–Darby bovine kidney cells. Panels of overlapping gD recombinant proteins with glutathione S-transferase tag were prepared to define the epitope recognized by 3C1. The data demonstrated that the N-terminus of gD 23APRVTVYVD31 was recognized by 3C1. Furthermore, the 26VTVYVD31 motif was the minimal amino acid sequence for the recognition. The epitope identified in this study is highly con...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Abstract Herpes simplex viruses (HSV) types 1 and 2 are ubiquitous. They both cause genital herpes, occasionally severe disease in the immunocompromised, and facilitate much HIV acquisition globally. Despite more than 60 years of research, there is no licensed prophylactic HSV vaccine and some doubt as to whether this can be achieved. Nevertheless, a previous HSV vaccine candidate did have partial success in preventing genital herpes and HSV acquisition and another immunotherapeutic candidate reduced viral shedding and recurrent lesions, inspiring further research. However, the entry pathway of HSV into the a...
Source: Herpes - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Methods Mol Biol Source Type: research
In this report, we evaluated the protective efficacy of a vaccine containing highly purified, inactivated HSV-2 particles (with and without additional recombinant glycoprotein D) formulated with a monophosphoryl lipid A/Alhydrogel adjuvant in a guinea pig HSV genital model. The key results from 3 independent studies were: (1) vaccination consistently provided significant 3-3.5 Log10 reductions in vaginal HSV-2 titers on day 2 postchallenge; (2) following homologous or heterologous challenge with two U.S. isolates, all vaccine groups showed complete protection against lesion formation, significant 3 Log10 reductions in day ...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
THURSDAY, Sept. 26, 2019 -- An experimental vaccine against genital herpes is extremely effective in mice, offering hope of human protection against an incurable sexually transmitted disease. The vaccine prevented transmission of the herpes simplex...
Source: Drugs.com - Daily MedNews - Category: General Medicine Source Type: news
In this study, one of the indole molecules, arbidol derivative (ARD) was designed and synthesized prior to the evaluation of its anti-HSV-2 activity. Our data showed that the ARD effectively suppressed HSV-2-induced cytopathic effects and the generation of progeny virus, with 50% effective concentrations of 3.386 and 1.717 μg/mL, respectively. The results of the time-course assay suggested that the ARD operated in a dual antiviral way by interfering virus entry and impairing the earlier period of viral cycle during viral DNA synthesis. The ARD-mediated HSV-2 inhibition was partially attained by blocking NF-κB pa...
Source: Biomedicine and pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine and pharmacotherapie - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Biomed Pharmacother Source Type: research
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