Infectious ocular motor neuropathies

Purpose of review Describe the range of infectious causes of ocular motor neuropathies, from common presentations to unusual manifestations of diseases less frequently seen in the developed world. Provide information on recent developments in diagnostic testing for pathogens that may cause ocular motor neuropathies. Recent findings Antigen detection in serum or CSF has improved the diagnosis of cryptococcal disease. Cartridge PCR testing for tuberculosis has increased diagnostic accuracy, though tuberculous meningitis remains difficult to diagnose. Rapid, multiplex PCR and unbiased sequencing allow for diagnosis of a wider range of organisms. Summary Infectious ocular motor neuropathies can occur anywhere along the length of cranial nerves III, IV, and VI. Characteristic clinical findings and imaging can be used to localize infections. Infectious causes may have characteristic clinical, laboratory, or imaging findings, but must still be carefully separated from inflammatory or neoplastic conditions.
Source: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology - Category: Opthalmology Tags: NEURO-OPHTHALMOLOGY: Edited by Dean M. Cestari Source Type: research

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Conclusion: Opportunistic neuroinfections are the most commonneurological manifestation in patients with AIDS, with cryptococcal meningitis being the most commonopportunistic neuroinfection occurring as AIDS-defining illness in one-third of the patients with neuro-AIDS.
Source: Neurology India - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusion: Validated commercial antigen tests, as used in this program, should be the new gold standard for histoplasmosis and cryptococcosis diagnosis. In their absence, 35% of disseminated histoplasmosis and 32.7% of cryptococcal meningitis cases would have been missed. Patients with multiple opportunistic infections were frequently diagnosed and strategies should be designed to screen patients irrespective of their clinical presentation. In low resource settings, Diagnostic Laboratory Hubs can deliver quality diagnostics services in record time at affordable prices.
Source: AIDS - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: CLINICAL SCIENCE Source Type: research
In this study they also showed PTX3 localized in NETs formed after neutrophil activation (5). Proteomics analysis revealed that PTX3 forms complexes with two anti-microbial proteins [azurocidin (AZU1) and myeloperoxidase (MPO)] associated to NETs (30). More recently, PTX3 localization in NETs has been confirmed, and the colocalization with AZU1 and MPO has been defined more accurately (31). Further investigation will be needed to understand the involvement of PTX3 interaction with AZU1 and MPO in their antibacterial role during NET formation. Regulation of Complement Activation PTX3 interaction with microorganisms is not...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusion In this setting, patients with CNS infections present late with severe disease and often associated with advanced HIV infection. Tuberculosis, toxoplasmosis, and cryptococcosis are common. High mortality and long-term morbidity underline the need for service improvements and further study.
Source: Neurology Clinical Practice - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Encephalitis, Meningitis, HIV, Prognosis Research Source Type: research
LITFL • Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog LITFL • Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog - Emergency medicine and critical care medical education blog aka Tropical Travel Trouble 009 The diagnosis of HIV is no longer fatal and the term AIDS is becoming less frequent. In many countries, people with HIV are living longer than those with diabetes. This post will hopefully teach the basics of a complex disease and demystify some of the potential diseases you need to consider in those who are severely immunosuppressed. While trying to be comprehensive this post can not be exhaustive (as you can imagine any patient with ...
Source: Life in the Fast Lane - Category: Emergency Medicine Authors: Tags: Clinical Cases Tropical Medicine AIDS art cryptococcoma cryptococcus HIV HIV1 HIV2 PEP PrEP TB toxoplasma tuberculoma Source Type: blogs
This study investigates the feasibility of lay counsellors conducting CrAg LFA screening in rural primary care clinics in Lesotho. METHODS: From May 2014 to June 2015, individuals who tested positive for HIV were tested for CD4 count and those with CD4
Source: Rural Remote Health - Category: Rural Health Authors: Tags: PLoS One Source Type: research
We describe a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus diagnosed with simultaneous cryptococcal and TB meningitis who had a poor response to intravenous liposomal amphotericin B and fluconazole, but was successfully treated with intraventricular amphotericin B, in addition to anti-TB therapy.
Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
We present the case of an HIV-infected patient on ART, with a history of cryptococcal meningitis who presented with subacute, worsening abdominal pain during immune recovery. This evolved into chronic abdominal pain, with thickened bowel, and abdominal lymphadenopathy, while receiving empiric tuberculosis treatment. At 6-months, he developed intestinal perforation due to a histologically confirmed cryptococcoma.
Source: Medical Mycology Case Reports - Category: Biology Source Type: research
We present the case of an HIV-infected patient on ART, with a history of cryptococcal meningitis who presented with subacute, worsening abdominal pain during immune recovery. This evolved into chronic abdominal pain, with thickened bowel, and abdominal lymphadenopathy, while receiving empiric tuberculosis treatment. At 6-months, he developed intestinal perforation due to a histologically confirmed cryptococcoma.
Source: Medical Mycology Case Reports - Category: Biology Source Type: research
Editor: V. Dimov, M.D., Cleveland ClinicHypoglossal Nerve Palsy during Meningococcal Meningitis. NEJM, 10/2014.Herpes Zoster Involving the S1 Dermatome. NEJM, 05/2014.Tinea Faciei. NEJM, 05/2014.Disseminated Cryptococcosis in a CLL patient. 05/2014.Scrofuloderma due to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. NEJM, 06/2012.Leonine Facies in Lepromatous Leprosy. NEJM, 04/2012.Intestinal Infestation with Ancylostoma ceylanicum. NEJM, 03/2012.Kerion celsi form of tinea capitis caused by a T-cell hypersensitivity reaction. NEJM, 03/2012.Eye can see a nest of worms! Thelazia callipaeda. Lancet, 03/2012.Madura Foot. NEJM, 01/2012.Paragonimia...
Source: Clinical Cases and Images - Category: General Medicine Tags: Images Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
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