Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 867: Vector Competence: What Has Zika Virus Taught Us?

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 867: Vector Competence: What Has Zika Virus Taught Us? Viruses doi: 10.3390/v11090867 Authors: Sasha R. Azar Scott C. Weaver The unprecedented outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in the Americas from 2015 to 2017 prompted the publication of a large body of vector competence data in a relatively short period of time. Although differences in vector competence as a result of disparities in mosquito populations and viral strains are to be expected, the limited competence of many populations of the urban mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti, from the Americas (when its susceptibility is viewed relative to other circulating/reemerging mosquito-borne viruses such as dengue (DENV), yellow fever (YFV), and chikungunya viruses (CHIKV)) has proven a paradox for the field. This has been further complicated by the lack of standardization in the methodologies utilized in laboratory vector competence experiments, precluding meta-analyses of this large data set. As the calls for the standardization of such studies continue to grow in number, it is critical to examine the elements of vector competence experimental design. Herein, we review the various techniques and considerations intrinsic to vector competence studies, with respect to contemporary findings for ZIKV, as well as historical findings for other arboviruses, and discuss potential avenues of standardization going forward.
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research

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by Elliott F. Miot, Fabien Aubry, St éphanie Dabo, Ian H. Mendenhall, Sébastien Marcombe, Cheong H. Tan, Lee C. Ng, Anna-Bella Failloux, Julien Pompon, Paul T. Brey, Louis Lambrechts The case-fatality rate of yellow fever virus (YFV) is one of the highest among arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). Although historically, the Asia-Pacific region has remained free of YFV, the risk of introduction has never been higher due to the increasing influx of people from endemic regions and the recent outbreaks in Africa and South America. Singapore is a global hub for trade and tourism and therefore at high risk for Y...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
DiscussionChikungunya outbreaks have been reported in the study area in the past, so the high seroprevalence is not surprising. However, scarce evidence exists on dengue transmission in Kinshasa and based on our data, circulation is more important than previously reported. Furthermore, our study shows that the prescription of antibiotics, both antibacterial and antimalarial drugs, is rampant. Studies like this one, elucidating the causes of acute fever, may lead to a more considerate and rigorous use of antibiotics. This will not only stem the ever-increasing problem of antimicrobial resistance, but will –ultimately ...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
A Danish and Taiwanese company has won Australia’s Good Design Award for a portable diagnostic device—small enough to fit in a camera case—that allows diagnosis of infectious diseases on the spot from a single drop of blood. “The Good Design Award ranked BluBox as the best solution for the rapid and accurate assessment of communicable diseases in heavily populated as well as resource-constrained, expertise-lacking areas,” explained Filippo Bosco, CEO and one of the three founders of BluSense Diagnostics (Copenhagen). The secret inside...
Source: MDDI - Category: Medical Devices Authors: Tags: IVD Source Type: news
The present study shows that the most prominent human arboviruses worldwide (dengue viruses 1, 2, 3, and 4, Chikungunya virus, and Zika virus) can infect wild animals and jump from urban to sylvatic maintenance cycles in South America, as did the yellow fever virus in the past. All these viruses are transmitted by the anthropophilic mosquito Aedes aegypti and cause epidemics throughout Brazil. The yellow fever virus is the oldest example of an urban arbovirus that became sylvatic in South America. Currently, the disease is a zoonosis of non-human primates that moves like a wave through forests of the Brazilian countryside,...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
This study shows spatiotemporal variability in IR inAe.aegypti populations in southern coastal Ecuador, and provides an initial examination of IR in this region, helping to guide vector control efforts forAe.aegypti.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
We describe the unexpected binding of S-layer to cells devoid of DC-SIGN but also confirm that the presence of DC-SIGN was essential for S-layer’s antiviral activity. S-layer protein exerted its antiviral effect with different kinetics than mannan, a known viral inhibitor that also acts on DC-SIGN (Yu et al., 2017). Together our results suggest that inhibition of viral entry by S-layer occurs via a novel S-layer/DC-SIGN interaction. Materials and Methods Isolation of S-Layer Proteins S-layer proteins were extracted from overnight cultures of L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 cells grown in MRS medium at 37°C by using 6...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Adriano Queiroz1, Isabella Fernanda Dantas Pinto2, Maricélia Lima3, Marta Giovanetti1,4, Jaqueline Goes de Jesus1, Joilson Xavier1, Fernanda Khouri Barreto5, Gisele André Baptista Canuto6, Helineide Ramos do Amaral7, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis4, Denise Lima Mascarenhas8, Melissa Barreto Falcão8, Normeide Pedreira Santos8, Vasco Ariston de Carvalho Azevedo9, Marcos Yukio Yoshinaga2*, Sayuri Miyamoto2 and Luiz Carlos Junior Alcantara1,4,10* 1Laboratório de Patologia Experimental, Instituto Gonçalo Moniz, Salvador, Brazil 2Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Quími...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusions Apart West Nile virus (78), thousands of congenital microcephaly cases, fetal brain tissue damage and neurological syndromes have been associated with ZIKV infection. Unfortunately, the epidemics of this mosquito born, and a relative stable virus is on a rise. Although congenital microcephaly is a rare disorder however, due to lack of standardized diagnostic test facilities, the incidence in the geographically widespread ZIKV epidemic regions is higher. Animals studies showed that ZIKV is a neurotropic virus. It directly targets the developing embryonic brain cells by inducing apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, and...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusion and Perspectives Arbovirus infections, such as CHIKV, have been growing worldwide and are becoming a major public health problem, especially in immuno-compromised classes such as children and the elderly. CHIKV is dangerous since it can cause arthritis, fever and other impairments, making it necessary to seek new ways to counter the proliferation of this virus. Knowing the vector’s competence is fundamentally important, including an understanding of the vector virus interaction and the modulation of this interaction. Despite advances in the knowledge of mosquito competence in the transmission of CHIKV, li...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In recent years, Brazil has experienced several epidemics caused by arboviruses, such as dengue virus (DENV serotypes 1 –4), Zika virus (ZIKV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and yellow fever virus (YFV). In the past 2 years, the largest epidemic of sylvatic yellow fever in decades occurred in areas that were not considered at risk (Faria et al., 2018). As part of the response to this recent outbreak, federal and state authorities conducted mass vaccination campaigns against YFV, and the vaccination is now recommended and offered in 19 Brazilian states (Saúde, 2018b).
Source: International Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Short Communication Source Type: research
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