Challenges and recent advancements in infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccines.

Challenges and recent advancements in infectious laryngotracheitis virus vaccines. Avian Pathol. 2013 Jun;42(3):195-205 Authors: Coppo MJ, Noormohammadi AH, Browning GF, Devlin JM Abstract Over the past 80 years, biosecurity measures and vaccines have been used to prevent the occurrence of outbreaks of infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT). Despite these control strategies, ILT continues to have an impact on intensive poultry industries. Attenuated vaccines, particularly those derived by passage in chicken embryos, have been associated with a number of side effects, including residual virulence, transmission to naïve birds, establishment of latent infections with subsequent reactivation and shedding of virus, and reversion to virulence after in vivo passage. Most recently, recombination between attenuated ILT vaccines in the field has been shown to be responsible for the emergence of new virulent viruses that have caused widespread disease. To address some of these issues, new-generation virally vectored recombinant vaccines have been developed and recently released in some countries. In addition, recombinant deletion mutants of ILT virus have been proposed as vaccine candidates. In this review, recent advances in the understanding of the epidemiology of traditionally attenuated ILT vaccines as well as in the development and use of new generation vaccines are examined. Next-generation vaccines, along with more appropriate immunological screening strategies,...
Source: Avian Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

Related Links:

Authors: Malik YS, Sircar S, Bhat S, Sharun K, Dhama K, Dadar M, Tiwari R, Chaicumpa W Abstract Coronaviruses are the well-known cause of severe respiratory, enteric and systemic infections in a wide range of hosts including man, mammals, fish, and avian. The scientific interest on coronaviruses increased after the emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) outbreaks in 2002-2003 followed by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV). This decade's first CoV, named 2019-nCoV, emerged from Wuhan, China, and declared as "Public Health Emergency of International Concern" on Ja...
Source: Veterinary Quarterly - Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Vet Q Source Type: research
“Everyone knows that pestilences have a way of recurring in the world,” observes Albert Camus in his novel The Plague. “Yet somehow we find it hard to believe in ones that crash down on our heads from a blue sky. There have been as many plagues as wars in history; yet plagues and wars always take people by surprise.” Camus was imagining a fictional outbreak of plague in 1948 in Oran, a port city in northwest Algeria. But at a time when the world is reeling from a very real microbial emergency sparked by the emergence of a novel coronavirus in Wuhan, central China, his observations are as pertinent a...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized 2019-nCoV health ideas Source Type: news
Once in a very rare while, a single, serious challenge consumes the attention of the entire world. We are living through one such period today as countries and communities come together to end the new coronavirus outbreak. This virus, provisionally known as the “2019-novel coronavirus,” has, as of 3 February 2020, spread to 24 countries, with over 17,000 people being infected to date, 99% of them in China. The limited numbers of cases elsewhere around the world – just 153 so far – show that efforts to contain the virus in China are curbing its global spread, alongside the detection and clinical care...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized health ideas Source Type: news
Why are some people better able to fight off the flu than others? Part of the answer, according to a new study, is related to the first flu strain we encounter in childhood.Scientists from UCLA and the University of Arizona have found that people ’s ability to fight off the flu virus is determined not only by the subtypes of flu they have had throughout their lives, but also by the sequence in which they are been infected by the viruses. Their study is published in the open-access journal PLoS Pathogens.The research offers an explanation for why some people fare much worse than others when infected with the...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
Abstract The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses and their spillover into the human population pose substantial economic and public health threats. Although antiviral drugs have some effect in treating influenza infection, vaccination is still the most effective intervention to prevent possible pandemic outbreaks. We have developed a novel H5 influenza vaccine to improve the world's pandemic preparedness. We produced a hemagglutinin (HA) of HPAI H5N1 virus A/Alberta/01/2014 (AB14) using both mammalian (m) and bacterial (b) expression systems. The purified recombinant proteins were formulated with...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Abstract In China, influenza A(H7N9) virus appeared in 2013, then mutated into a highly pathogenic virus, causing outbreaks among poultry and cases in humans. Since September 2017, extensive use of the corresponding vaccine, H7-Re1, successfully reduced virus prevalence. However, in 2019, a novel antigenic variant emerged, posing considerable economic and public health threats.A. PMID: 31855533 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Emerg Infect Dis Source Type: research
World-leading vaccine scientists from the University of Bristol are working with one of Vietnam's major vaccine manufacturers, Vabiotech, to share cutting-edge knowledge that could help prevent future global outbreaks of avian flu and rabies.
Source: University of Bristol news - Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Health, International, Research; Faculty of Life Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, School of Biochemistry, Institutes, Institutes, Bristol BioDesign Institute; Press Release Source Type: news
Abstract The occurrence of severe outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza in Korea led to establishment of a national antigen bank for emergency preparedness. Here, we developed five vaccines for this bank (clade 2.3.2.1C, clade 2.3.4.4A, B, C, and D) by reverse genetics, inactivated them with formalin, and evaluated the protective efficacy and potency of serial dilutions against lethal homologous challenge in specific-pathogen-free chickens. After vaccination with one dose, each vaccine resulted in 100% survival, with no clinical symptoms, or lack of detectable virus shedding, and high levels of pre-challe...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
My sister-in-law, Vicki Gregory, who has died of cancer aged 51, was an international expert in influenza surveillance and research.As a stalwart of theWorldwide Influenza Centre at theFrancis Crick Institute in London, Vicki was held in high regard by colleagues around the globe. With her wealth of knowledge and experience, notably during bird flu outbreaks, she collaborated with many of the laboratories of theWorld Health Organization (WHO)’s influenza response system.Continue reading...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Medical research Flu Science Society Vaccines and immunisation Punk Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 8 October 2019Source: Microbial PathogenesisAuthor(s): Momena Habib, Tahir Yaqub, Aziz-ul-Rahman, Tayyebah Sohail, Muhammad Shahbaz, Wasim Shehzad, Muhammad Munir, Muhammad Zubair ShabbirAbstractNewcastle disease (ND), caused by Avian orthoavulavirus 1 (AOAV-1), affects multiple avian species around the globe. Frequent disease outbreaks are not uncommon even in vaccinates despite routine vaccination and, in this regards, viruses of diverse genotypes originating from natural reservoirs (migratory waterfowls) play an important role in a disease endemic setting. Though genomic characterizati...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
More News: Allergy & Immunology | Bird Flu | Epidemiology | Outbreaks | Pathology | Vaccines