The immunomodulatory and antiallergic effects of human colonized probiotics

The rate of allergy is increasing particularly among infants due to several factors reaching up to 30%. Several materials components have been implicated in the development and excessive activation of the immune system, acting as irritants and allergic agents. In several studies, in Mediterranean inhabitants with a specific diet, the prevalence of allergies in children was low, whereas dietary supplements in the Western and Mediterranean countries had a different role in the regulation of immune responses and in the reduction of allergic reactions. Probiotics have been associated with reduction of allergic reactions mostly by positive effect on T helper cells, regulatory T cells (Tregs), B cells and dendritic cells. Furthermore, probiotics existing in the human intestine can modulate the immune response and allergic reactions through downregulation of Th2-related responses (IgE, IL-4 and IL-5). They mostly exert anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties by modulation of immune system components via hindering of various signaling pathways such as the NF-κB pathway, probably associated with changes in mitogen-activated protein kinases and pattern recognition receptors pathways. These microorganisms have also potential to inhibit the bacterial lipopolysaccharide attachment to the CD14 receptor, hence reducing the overall activation of NF-κB and proinflammatory cytokines production. Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus species act through increase in proinflammat...
Source: Reviews in Medical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Tags: BACTERIOLOGY Source Type: research

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Concerns over staffing needs and the risk for anaphylaxis with new oral immunotherapies have physicians questioning the next steps.Medscape Medical News
Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Allergy & Clinical Immunology News Source Type: news
Oral immunotherapy (OIT) for food allergy entails a risk of adverse reactions, including anaphylaxis. This safety concern is the major barrier for OIT to become a therapeutic option in clinical practice. The high heterogeneity in safety reporting of OIT studies prevents setting the safety profile accurately. An international consensus is needed to facilitate the analysis of large pooled clinical data with homogeneous safety reporting, that together with integrated omics, and patients/families ’ opinions, may help stratify the patients’ risk and needs, and help developing safe(r) individualized care pathways. Th...
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
Cumulative evidence shows that peanut oral immunotherapy (OIT) is effective at inducing desensitization through downregulation of effector pathways in the allergic reaction cascade; however, only a subset of patients achieve sustained unresponsiveness (remission), which requires redirection of the underlying allergic response toward tolerance. A recent meta-analysis of peanut OIT randomized trials found that OIT is associated with a threefold greater risk of anaphylaxis and twofold greater risk of epinephrine use than allergen avoidance. Strategies to reduce adverse events associated with OIT and improve the ability for OI...
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
Questions and controversies regarding venom immunotherapy (VIT) remain. It is important to recognize risk factors for severe sting anaphylaxis that guide the recommendation for testing, epinephrine injectors, and VIT. Premedication, rush VIT, and omalizumab are successful in overcoming recurrent systemic reactions to VIT. A maintenance dose is adequate in children, but higher doses are needed in high-risk patients. The consensus on risk of β-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in patients on VIT has shifted to the belief that risk is small. The decision to stop VIT after 5 years rests on known r...
Source: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
We report a case of systemic reaction to timothy grass pollen sublingual immunotherapy in a pediatric patient.
Source: Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
Horse hair sensitization is a known cause of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma exacerbations, and anaphylaxis. Currently there is a paucity of studies describing the safety of horse aeroallergen immunotherapy (AIT).
Source: Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
A 16-year old coed was referred for continuing care of her Idiopathic Anaphylaxis/Mast Cell Degranulation Syndrome (MCDS) soon after moving into her grandparents ’ rural home, separating her from a neighborhood boy. Her diagnoses included Gastro-esophageal Reflux and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder for which she received Omalizumab Immunotherapy, Sertraline, Cetirizine, Fexofenadine, Montelukast, Ranitidine, Calcium, Vitamin D3 and as needed Epinephrine.
Source: Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
Peanut allergy prevalence is increasing in the United States; it is a persistent allergy and common etiology of fatal and near-fatal anaphylaxis. Oral immunotherapy (OIT) is increasingly available to desensitize peanut-allergic children but optimal patient selection remains unknown.
Source: Annals of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Source Type: research
Stinging insect allergy is uncommon but can be life threatening. Diagnosis requires clinical history and confirmative skin or blood testing by an allergist. Baseline serum tryptase level can be used to stratify risk. Treatment is supportive for all reactions except for anaphylaxis, which is treated with intramuscular epinephrine, recumbent posture, and adjunct measures such as IV fluids, and oxygen. Venom immunotherapy is most effective for long-term management in patients with a history of anaphylaxis. Venom immunotherapy rapidly reduces the risk of sting anaphylaxis by up to 98% and maintenance treatment can be stopped a...
Source: Medical Clinics of North America - Category: Primary Care Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe trial demonstrated a favorable safety profile of the SQ HDM SLIT tablet in Japanese adult patients with AA. The treatment appeared to be efficacious in patients requiring rescue medication (ie, short-acting β2-agonist) at baseline in the efficacy assessment using asthma exacerbation during inhaled corticosteroid reduction (JapicCTI number 121847).
Source: The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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