Campylobacter jejuni Associated with Wild Birds and those Causing Human Disease in Six High-Use Recreational Waterways in New Zealand.

This study uses molecular tools to improve our understanding of the epidemiology and sources of Campylobacter in recreational waterways, with a view to preventing human infection. Epidemiological and microbiological data were collected between 2005 and 2009 from six high-use recreational waterways in the Manawatu-Wanganui region of the North Island. Campylobacter spp. and C. jejuni were isolated from 33.2% and 20.4% of 509 samples, respectively. Isolation of Campylobacter was observed in both low and high river flows. After adjusting for the confounding effects of river flow, there was a significantly higher likelihood of isolating Campylobacter in the winter month of June compared to January. A high diversity of C. jejuni multilocus sequence types was seen, with the most commonly isolated being the water rail-associated ST-2381, (19/91 isolates, 20.9%), ST-1225 (8/91 isolates, 8.8%), and ST-45 (6/91 isolates, 6.6%). The ST-2381 was found in all rivers, while the most commonly isolated ST from human cases in New Zealand, the poultry-associated strain ST-474, was isolated only in one river. Although the majority of Campylobacter sequence types identified in river water were strains associated with wild birds that are rarely associated with human disease, poultry and ruminant-associated Campylobacter strains that are found in human infection were also identified, and could present a public health risk.IMPORTANCEIn 2016, there was a large-scale waterborne outbreak of campylobact...
Source: Applied and Environmental Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Appl Environ Microbiol Source Type: research

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Globally, the bacterial genus Campylobacter is one of the leading causes of human gastroenteritis, with its primary route of infection being through poultry meat. The application of biosecurity measures is currently limited by a lack of understanding of the transmission dynamics within a flock. Our work is the first to undertake a mathematical modelling approach to Campylobacter population dynamics within a flock of broilers (chickens bred specifically for meat). A system of stochastic differential equations is used to model the routes of infection between co-housed birds. The presented model displays the strong correlatio...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In this study, we developed a real-time RPA assay so as to achieve the rapid and efficient detection of C. jejuni by targeting the hipO gene. The specificity and senstivity of real-time RPA was validated and the practical applicability of the method for the detection of C. jejuni in artificially contaminated milk and chicken breast samples was proved by comparing their reaction time, sensitivity, and efficacy with those of real-time PCR and culture-based methods. Based on the real-time RPA assay, analysis time was reduced to approximately 13 mins from 60 mins and the results were as reliable as those of the real-time PCR a...
Source: Journal of Microbiological Methods - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In this study two different species of the human-commensal crow, from two different geographical regions separated by 7000 miles of land and water, have been examined for their ability to cause disease by shedding campylobacter. Our results show that the crow, may not play a significant role in campylobacteriosis because the campylobacter they shed produce a non-functional toxin. PMID: 29330183 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Applied and Environmental Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Appl Environ Microbiol Source Type: research
Abstract As clinical laboratories transition to using culture-independent detection test (CIDT) panels for cases of acute gastroenteritis, culture of clinical specimens is becoming less common. The reduction in bacterial cultures available for public health activities is expected to hinder surveillance and outbreak response by public health laboratories at the local, provincial, national and international levels. These recommendations are intended to serve as guidelines for the implementation of CIDT panels in frontline laboratories in Canada. The United States of America has already seen a significant reduction i...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research
Abstract   We previously developed a multiplex real-time PCR assay (Rapid Foodborne Bacterial Screening 24 ver.5, RFBS24 ver.5) for simultaneous detection of 24 foodborne bacterial targets. Here, to overcome the discrepancy of the RFBS24 ver.5 and bacterial culture method (BC) results, we analyzed 246 human clinical samples from 49 gastroenteritis outbreaks by the RFBS24 ver.5 and evaluated the correlation between cycle threshold value (CT) of RFBS24 ver.5 and the BC results. The results showed that the RFBS24 ver.5 was more sensitive than BC for Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia coli harboring astA o...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research
We report on a case of laboratory‐confirmed Campylobacter jejuni infection in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania among members of a household living with a laboratory‐confirmed but non‐speciated Campylobacter‐infected puppy. We describe an outbreak of likely dog‐associated campylobacteriosis, the risk factors, potential routes of exposure and the clinical features in the exposed family members, which began shortly after exposure to the recently purchased dog. We also provide public health recommendations to prevent Campylobacter infections in veterinary care providers, pet owners and those planning to adopt pets in...
Source: Zoonoses and Public Health - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
Human campylobacteriosis, caused by Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli, remains a leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in many countries, but the epidemiology of campylobacteriosis outbreaks remains poorly defined, largely due to limitations in the resolution and comparability of isolate characterization methods. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data enable the improvement of sequence-based typing approaches, such as multilocus sequence typing (MLST), by substantially increasing the number of loci examined. A core genome MLST (cgMLST) scheme defines a comprehensive set of those loci present in most members of a bacterial ...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research
Summary Campylobacter is the most frequently occurring cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in Europe. Unlike other zoonotic diseases, European‐wide incidences of Campylobacter infections have increased during the past decade, resulting in a significant disease burden. In Denmark, campylobacteriosis is notifiable by laboratory and a unique registration system of electronic transfer and storage of notified Campylobacter cases linked to the national person register of age, gender and geographical location allows collection of comprehensive case data. Using national surveillance data, we describe Campylobacter infections in D...
Source: Zoonoses and Public Health - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
n P Abstract A food-borne outbreak of gastroenteritis with more than 650 suspected cases occurred in April 2016 in Sollentuna, Sweden. It originated in a school kitchen serving a total of 2,700 meals daily. Initial microbiological testing (for Campylobacter, Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Entamoeba histolytica, adeno-, astro-, noro-, rota- and sapovirus) of stool samples from 15 symptomatic cases was negative, despite a clinical presentation suggestive of calicivirus. Analyses of the findings from both the Sollentuna municipality environmental team and a web-based questionnaire suggested...
Source: Euro Surveill - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Euro Surveill Source Type: research
We describe how WGS has increased our understanding of the evolutionary and epidemiological dynamics of this pathogen and how WGS has the potential to improve surveillance and outbreak detection. We have identified hurdles to the full implementation of WGS in public health settings. Despite these challenges, we think that ample evidence is available to support the benefits of integrating WGS into the routine monitoring of C. jejuni infections and outbreak investigations.
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Minireviews Source Type: research
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