Evolutionary Analysis of the VP1 and RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase Regions of Human Norovirus GII.P17-GII.17 in 2013 –2017

Human norovirus (HuNoV) GII.P17-GII.17 (Kawasaki2014 variant) reportedly emerged in 2014 and caused gastroenteritis outbreaks worldwide. To clarify the evolution of both VP1 and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) regions of GII.P17-GII.17, we analyzed both global and novel Japanese strains detected during 2013–2017. Time-scaled phylogenetic trees revealed that the ancestral GII.17 VP1 region diverged around 1949, while the ancestral GII.P17 RdRp region diverged around 2010. The evolutionary rates of the VP1 and RdRp regions were estimated at ~2.7 × 10−3 and ~2.3 × 10−3 substitutions/site/year, respectively. The phylogenetic distances of the VP1 region exhibited no overlaps between intra-cluster and inter-cluster peaks in the GII.17 strains, whereas those of the RdRp region exhibited a unimodal distribution in the GII.P17 strains. Conformational epitope positions in the VP1 protein of the GII.P17-GII.17 strains were similar, although some substitutions, insertions and deletions had occurred. Strains belonging to the same cluster also harbored substitutions around the binding sites for the histo-blood group antigens of the VP1 protein. Moreover, some amino acid substitutions were estimated to be near the interface between monomers and the active site of the RdRp protein. These results suggest that the GII.P17-GII.17 virus has produced variants with the potential to alter viral antigenicity, host-binding capability, and replication property over th...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

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Abstract Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is one of the most frequently occuring illnesses in children and adults worldwide. In February 2017, two AGE outbreaks occurred in two adjacent schools in Huzhou city, Zhenjiang province of China. We detected high percentages of recombinant norovirus GII.P16/GII.2 in one school and chicken anemia virus (CAV) in another school using next generation sequencing (NGS) and specific PCR. The results highlight the importance of continuous surveillance of GII.P16/GII.2, and suggest the need of further studies on whether CAV causes AGE. Keywords: acute gastroenteritis; norovirus; chicke...
Source: Acta Virologica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Virology Source Type: research
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Source: Food Control - Category: Food Science Source Type: research
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Source: Gut Pathogens - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
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Source: New Microbiologica - Category: Microbiology Tags: New Microbiol Source Type: research
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Source: BMC Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
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Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Letter to the Editor Source Type: research
Abstract Norovirus (NoV) is now recognized as a major cause of gastroenteritis outbreaks, worldwide. Norovirus replication mechanisms are still poorly understood, mainly because a reliable cell culture system is still lacking. The present study aims at understanding some aspects of the immune response against norovirus, and particularly the capacity of virus like particles (VLPs) from an Italian strain, belonging to the GII.4 genotype predominating worldwide, to interact with target cells via Toll Like Receptors (TLRs). The capacity of GII.4 NoV VLPs to interact and cause the activation of TLR2, 4 and 5 was studie...
Source: Immunology Letters - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
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