Wnt/ β-Catenin Signaling as a Molecular Target by Pathogenic Bacteria

The Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is crucial to regulate cell proliferation and polarity, cell determination, and tissue homeostasis. The activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is based on the interaction between Wnt glycoproteins and seven transmembrane receptors—Frizzled (Fzd). This binding promotes recruitment of the scaffolding protein Disheveled (Dvl), which results in the phosphorylation of the co-receptor LRP5/6. The resultant molecular complex Wnt–Fzd–LRP5/6-Dvl forms a structural region for Axin interaction that disrupts Axin-mediated phosphorylation/degradation of the transcriptional co-activator β-catenin, thereby allowing it to stabilize and accumulate in the nucleus where it activates the expression of Wnt-dependent genes. Due to the prominent physiological function, the Wnt/β-catenin signaling must be strictly controlled because its dysregulation, which is caused by different stimuli, may lead to alterations in cell proliferation, apoptosis, and inflammation-associated cancer. The virulence factors from pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella enterica sv Typhimurium, Helicobacter pylori, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter rodentium, Clostridium difficile, Bacteroides fragilis, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus parasuis, Lawsonia intracellularis, Shigella dysenteriae, and Staphylococcus epidermidis employ a variety of molecular strategies to alter the appropriate functioning of diverse signaling pathw...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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Source: Chemosphere - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research
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Source: Chemosphere - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research
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Source: Chemosphere - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research
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Source: SafetyLit - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Suicide and Self-Harm Source Type: news
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