Convergent evolution of super black plumage near bright color in 15 bird families RESEARCH ARTICLE

We examined extremely low-reflectance, velvety black plumage patches in 32 bird species from 15 families and five orders and compared them with 22 closely related control species with normal black plumage. We used scanning electron microscopy to investigate microscopic feather anatomy, and applied spectrophotometry and hyperspectral imaging to measure plumage reflectance. Super black plumages are significantly darker and have more broadband low reflectance than normal black plumages, and they have evolved convergently in 15 avian families. Super black feather barbules quantitatively differ in microstructure from normal black feathers. Microstructural variation is significantly correlated with reflectance: tightly packed, strap-shaped barbules have lower reflectance. We assigned these super black feathers to five heuristic classes of microstructure, each of which has evolved multiple times independently. All classes have minimal exposed horizontal surface area and 3D micrometer-scale cavities greater in width and depth than wavelengths of light. In many species, barbule morphology varied between the super black exposed tip of a feather and its (i) concealed base or (ii) iridescently colored spot. We propose that super black plumages reduce reflectance, and flatten reflectance spectra, through multiple light scattering between the vertically oriented surfaces of microscale cavities, contributing to near-complete absorption of light by melanin. All super black plumage patches id...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research

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Short-eared Owl at Burwell Fen, photographed mid-January One evening in late November, I was once again, hoping to catch sight of the Starling murmurations that occur over the Broad Lane balancing pond. As mentioned in a previous, issue the local Starlings and their continental counterparts will often roost in the reed bed there, last winter there were literally thousands. At the time of writing, just a few hundred are roosting, but that can change on a wind as arrivals from Europe turn up when the weather changes. Anyway, reader Alison waved as she passed the pond on her dog walk. I later heard that she’d seen a scu...
Source: David Bradley Sciencebase - Songs, Snaps, Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Birds Source Type: blogs
The avian predentary is a small skeletal structure located rostral to the paired dentaries found only in Mesozoic ornithuromorphs. The evolution and function of this enigmatic element is unknown. Skeletal tissues forming the predentary and the lower jaws in the basal ornithuromorph Yanornis martini are identified using computed-tomography, scanning electron...
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Biological Sciences Source Type: research
Conclusions: Majority of our patient were female and homemaker, emphasizing the growing role of home environment in causing HP. Pigeon or avian droppings were the most commonly identified inciting agents. Sixty percent of patients had other diagnosis including Tuberculosis. It shows less amount of awareness about the disease among community and treating primary care physicians.
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: ILD/DPLD of known origin Source Type: research
In conclusion, the present study reports prevalence and gradual increase of amantadine resistance among AI H9N2 viruses in India, emphasizing the importance of the antiviral surveillance.
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
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Source: Veterinary Parasitology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
After the initial identification of the H1N1 pandemic influenza strain in Mexico in April 2009 and its subsequent global spread, several monovalent influenza vaccines were developed as part of the pandemic response. Three of these vaccines, Pandemrix, Arepanrix and Focetria were adjuvanted. One of these, the AS03-adjuvanted Pandemrix vaccine, was primarily used in Europe. Following widespread Pandemrix vaccine administration in Scandinavia, an increased risk of narcolepsy was noted in observational studies. Subsequently, this increased risk was also reported in other European countries as well. In contrast, studies from Ca...
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research
Publication date: 1 October 2019Source: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, Volume 182Author(s): Taek Lee, Ga Hyeon Kim, Soo Min Kim, Keonyoung Hong, Younghun Kim, Chulhwan Park, Hiesang Sohn, Junhong MinAbstractIn the present study, we fabricated a label-free avian influenza (AIV H5N1) detection biosensor composed of a multi-functional DNA 3 way-Junction (3 W J) on a hollow Au spike-like nanoparticle (hAuSN) using a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) method. To construct the multi-functional DNA (MF-DNA) as a bioprobe, the 3 W J was introduced. The proposed AIV detection bioprobe sh...
Source: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
Abstract In the present study, we fabricated a label-free avian influenza (AIV H5N1) detection biosensor composed of a multi-functional DNA 3 way-Junction (3 W J) on a hollow Au spike-like nanoparticle (hAuSN) using a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) method. To construct the multi-functional DNA (MF-DNA) as a bioprobe, the 3 W J was introduced. The proposed AIV detection bioprobe should contain three functionalities: target recognition, signal amplification, and connection to substrate. To achieve this goal, each piece of the DNA 3 W J was tailored to a hemagglut...
Source: Colloids and Surfaces - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tags: Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces Source Type: research
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Source: Research in Veterinary Science - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
In this study, the full-length cDNAs of cat BAFF (cBAFF) and BAFF-R (cBAFF-R) were amplified from the spleen by reverse transcription PCR. The open reading frame of cBAFF cDNA encodes a protein of 285 amino acids containing a predicted transmembrane domain and a furin protease cleavage site, similar to mammalian, avian, and reptile BAFFs. The cBAFF-R gene encodes a 189 amino acid protein. Real-time quantitative PCR analyses revealed that the two genes are predominantly expressed in the spleen. csBAFF, EGFP/csBAFF, and cBAFF-R were efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), as confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-...
Source: Molecular Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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