T and B lymphocytes in fibrosis and systemic sclerosis

Purpose of review To summarize recent advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of autoimmune fibrotic diseases. These diseases include IgG4-related disease, systemic sclerosis and lupus nephritis. Recent findings Recent studies indicate that a poorly studied subset of helper T cells, cytotoxic CD4+ T cells and sub-populations of disease-specific activated B cells infiltrate inflamed tissues and collaborate to induce tissue fibrosis in autoimmune fibrotic diseases. Cycles of apoptosis induced by antigen-specific cytotoxic CD4+ T cells followed by macrophage-mediated clearing of apoptotic cells and finally tissue remodeling driven by cytokines released by these auto-antigen-specific activated T and B cells may contribute to the activation of fibroblasts and myofibroblasts and the laying down of collagen. In scleroderma, this process likely involves the apoptosis of endothelial cells and other neighboring cells and the subsequent remodeling of the tissue. Summary Self-reactive cytotoxic CD4+ T cells infiltrate tissues where they may be nurtured by activated auto-reactive B cells, induce apoptosis, secrete cytokines and thus drive autoimmune fibrosis.
Source: Current Opinion in Rheumatology - Category: Rheumatology Tags: RAYNAUD PHENOMENON, SCLERODERMA, OVERLAP SYNDROMES AND OTHER FIBROSING SYNDROMES: Edited by John Varga Source Type: research

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Journal Name: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM) Issue: Ahead of print
Source: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine - Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research
Authors: Li S, Di D, Wu X, Zhang L, Liu R, Huang Q, Pan H, Ye D, Leng R Abstract Recent large-scale genetic association studies have identified that several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on X chromosome are correlated with risk of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in Chinese population. The aim of this study was to estimate association between these loci and clinical features in female patients with SLE. Six SNPs identified in previous studies were genotyped. Odds ratio (OR) was calculated with adjusting for potential confounding factors. A total of 772 SLE patients were included in the final analysis. Th...
Source: Autoimmunity - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 11 November 2019Source: MethodsAuthor(s): Jennifer I. Brown, Brent D.G. Page, Adam FrankelAbstractProtein arginine N-methyltransferases (PRMTs) are a family of 9 enzymes that catalyze mono- or di-methylation of arginine residues using S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM). Arginine methylation is an important post-translational modification that can regulate the activity and structure of target proteins. Altered PRMT activity can lead to a variety of health issues including neurodevelopmental disease, autoimmune disorders, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Thus, developing a robust mechanistic ...
Source: Methods - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Biologic drugs have revolutionized the treatment of certain hematologic, autoimmune, and malignant diseases, but they may place patients at risk for reactivation or acquisition of tuberculosis. This risk is highest with the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- α) inhibitors. Amongst this class of drugs, the monoclonal antibodies (infliximab, adalimumab, golimumab) and antibody fragment (certolizumab) carry an increased risk compared to the soluble receptor fusion molecule, etanercept. Treatment of latent TB is critical to decrease the risk of reactivatio n. Data continues to emerge regarding tuberculosis risk associated...
Source: Clinics in Chest Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionsAlemtuzumab appears to be an effective and safe short-term therapeutic option both as a rescue therapy for the disease flare-up associated with fingolimod withdrawal, as well as for the reversal of the deteriorating course observed in patients who fail treatment with fingolimod.
Source: Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
AstraZeneca Plc said on Monday its experimental treatment anifrolumab significantly reduced disease activity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in its late-stage study TULIP-2 study.Reuters Health Information
Source: Medscape Medical News Headlines - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Medscape Today News Source Type: news
AstraZeneca reported positive results this week from a late-stage lupus study.
Source: PharmaManufacturing.com - Category: Pharmaceuticals Source Type: news
ConclusionFurther studies are needed to evaluate the molecular mechanisms involved in the behaviour of MLT in EAE, and to quantify other cytokines in different biological media in order for MLT to be considered an anti-inflammatory agent capable of regulating MS.ResumenIntroducciónLa esclerosis múltiple (EM) es una enfermedad crónica desmielinizante autoinmune del sistema nervioso central (SNC) que produce neuroinflamación, un modelo es la encefalitis autoinmune experimental (EAE). La EM ha sido tratada con interferón beta (IFN-beta) y acetato de glatiramero (AG). Se ha descrito que la me...
Source: Neurologia - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Abstract Sex hormones are best known for their influences on reproduction, but they also have profound influences on the immune response. Examples of sex-specific differences include: (i) the relatively poor control of influenza virus infections in males compared to females, (ii) allergic asthma, an IgE-associated hypersensitivity reaction that is exacerbated in adolescent females compared to males, and (iii) systemic lupus erythematosus, a life-threatening autoimmune disease with a 9:1 female:male bias. Here we consider how estrogen and estrogen receptor α (ERα) may influence the immune response by mo...
Source: Cellular Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Cell Immunol Source Type: research
(eLife) An autoimmune attack on uninfected red blood cells likely contributes to anaemia -- a shortage of red blood cells -- in people with malaria, according to a new study published in eLife.
Source: EurekAlert! - Infectious and Emerging Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: news
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