Physiopathology of giant cell arteritis: From inflammation to vascular remodeling.

[Physiopathology of giant cell arteritis: From inflammation to vascular remodeling]. Presse Med. 2019 Sep 19;: Authors: Régent A, Ly KH, Mouthon L Abstract Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a large-vessel vasculitis involving the aorta and its main branches, especially supra aortic branches. Although much progress has been made, the pathophysiology remains incompletely understood. An initial trigger, suspected of infectious origin, lead to the maturation and recruitment of dendritic cells (DC). The lack of migration of these DC allows the local recruitment of T-lymphocytes (LT). These LT- CD4+ polarize in Type 1 helper (Th1), Th17 but also Th9. A qualitative and quantitative deficit in regulatory T cells (Treg) is observed under the influence of IL-21 overproduction. In addition, an imbalance in the Th17/Treg balance is favored by IL-6. The secretion of IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-6, IL-33 is responsible for a sustained local inflammatory reaction that is organized around tertiary lymphoid follicles. Locally recruited macrophages secrete reactive forms of oxygen together with VEGF and PDGF. These growth factors, together with neurotrophins and endothelin contribute to increase the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The imbalance between matrix metalloproteases (MMP)-2, MMP-9 and MMP-14 and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteases (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 also contribute to the remodeling process occurring in the vessel wall. Finally, arterial n...
Source: Presse Medicale - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Presse Med Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 20 November 2019Source: Clinica Chimica ActaAuthor(s): Si-jing Wu, Xia Yang, Peng-cheng Xu, Tong Chen, Shan Gao, Shui-yi Hu, Li Wei, Tie-kun YanAbstractBackgroundThe value of urinary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) for assessing kidney injury of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV) was investigated.MethodsThirty-nine kidney biopsy-proved myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA associated AAV patients were enrolled and analyzed.ResultsThe average urinary mtDNA of patients was significantly higher than that of normal controls (3372.74±1859.72 vs. 474.90±123.59 ...
Source: Clinica Chimica Acta - Category: Laboratory Medicine Source Type: research
We present a series of cases of lungworm infection in grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) associated with novel, significant and unusual pulmonary vascular changes. Grey seals (n = 180) that were stranded, in rehabilitation or in long-term captivity in the UK were subjected to post-mortem examination between 2012 and 2018. Lung tissue was collected from 47 individuals for histopathological examination. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on formalin-fixed and paraffin wax-embedded (FFPE) material was attempted for parasite identification on selected sections using lungworm-specific primers, and nematode morphology within...
Source: Journal of Comparative Pathology - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
Abstract Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a central role in the induction and maintenance of immune homeostasis and self-tolerance. Tregs constantly express the high-affinity receptor to IL-2. IL-2 is a pleiotropic cytokine and a key survival factor for Tregs. It maintains Tregs' suppressive function by promoting Foxp3 expression and subsequent production of immunoregulatory cytokines. Administration of low-dose IL-2 is shown to be a promising approach to prevent allograft rejection and to treat autoimmune and inflammatory conditions in experimental models. The combination of IL-2 with its mAb (JES6-1) has also bee...
Source: Journal of Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: J Immunol Source Type: research
Authors: Tanemoto M, Hisahara S, Hirose B, Ikeda K, Matsushita T, Suzuki S, Manabe T, Imai T, Shimohama S Abstract Rheumatoid vasculitis (RV) usually occurs in patients with refractory rheumatoid arthritis (RA). An 80-year-old woman was transferred to our hospital because of muscle weakness and paresthesia in all 4 limbs. She had been diagnosed with RA 30 years ago and achieved sustained clinical remission. At presentation, polyarthritis and drop foot were observed, and rheumatoid factor was prominently elevated. A peripheral nerve conduction test revealed mononeuritis multiplex in her limbs. We suspected that RV h...
Source: Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Intern Med Source Type: research
Authors: Membrey B, Miranda S, Lévesque H, Cailleux N, Benhamou Y, Armengol G Abstract Giant cell arteritis is the most common primary vasculitis of large-vessel occurring in subjects over 50 years of age. Many imaging techniques has been evaluated to improve the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis. Among these imaging techniques, ultrasound has shown good performances to detect inflammatory involvement of the temporal arteries as well as branches of the aorta. Several publications and recent EULAR recommendations have emhasized the place of this tool in the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis. PMID: 31...
Source: Revue de Medecine Interne - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Rev Med Interne Source Type: research
AbstractTakayasu arteritis is a chronic granulomatous vasculitis generally affecting large vessels including the thoracic aorta and its branches. Intimal proliferation subsequently causes segmental stenosis and occlusion, and frequently aneurysmal dilatation in the affected vessels. Although involvement of pulmonary arteries is not uncommon, isolated branch pulmonary stenosis is rarely encountered. Here, we report a patient presenting with isolated peripheral pulmonary stenosis as the primary manifestation of Takayasu arteritis.
Source: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases - Category: Rheumatology Authors: Tags: APLAR GRAND ROUND CASE Source Type: research
AbstractMacroscopic hematuria concomitant with acute pharyngitis is a characteristic feature of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN). Although the underlying mechanism of worsening hematuria has not been fully elucidated, activation of the innate immune system of nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue is thought to play an important role. The epipharynx is an immunologically activated site even under normal conditions, and enhanced activation of innate immunity is likely to occur in response to airborne infection. As latent but significant epipharyngitis presents in most IgAN patients, it is plausible that acute pharyngitis...
Source: Immunologic Research - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of the ReviewCryoglobulins are immunoglobulins with the ability to precipitate at temperatures
Source: Current Rheumatology Reports - Category: Rheumatology Source Type: research
Bifidobacterium plays a protective role in TNF-α-induced inflammatory response in Caco-2 cell through NF-κB and p38MAPK pathways. Mol Cell Biochem. 2019 Nov 18;: Authors: Nie N, Bai C, Song S, Zhang Y, Wang B, Li Z Abstract Kawasaki disease is an immune-mediated acute, systemic vasculitis and is the leading cause of acquired heart disease in children in the developed world. Bifidobacterium (BIF) is one of the dominant bacteria in the intestines of humans and many mammals and is able to adjust the intestinal flora disorder. The Caco-2 cell monolayers were treated with tumor necrosis factor-...
Source: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Mol Cell Biochem Source Type: research
ConclusionsOverall, FDG PET has a good diagnostic performance for the detection of active disease in LVV. Future prospective studies, more consistent with the joint procedural recommendations in LVV, are needed to support the use of standardized procedures and reproducible criteria for defining the presence of LVV with FDG PET/CT. Hybrid imaging and novel radiopharmaceuticals, more specific than FDG, are the future of PET in this field.
Source: Clinical and Translational Imaging - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
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