A Seven-Legged Tick: Report of a Morphological Anomaly in Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) Biting A Human Host from the Northeastern United States

Publication date: Available online 23 September 2019Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Goudarz Molaei, Eliza AH Little, Kirby C. Stafford, Holly GaffAbstractCases of morphological anomalies in the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae), have recently been reported from the Northeastern and upper Midwestern United States, potentially complicating identification of this important vector of human disease-causing pathogens. We hereby report a case of a morphological anomaly in I. scapularis, biting a human host residing in Norwich, Connecticut. Using a dichotomous morphological key, high-resolution and scanning electron microscopy images, as well as DNA sequencing, the tick was identified as an adult female I. scapularis with three legs on the left side of the abdomen versus four on the right side, which we believe is the first case of ectromely in an adult I. scapularis. Using diagnostic genes in polymerase chain reaction, the specimen tested positive for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agents for Lyme disease and anaplasmosis, respectively, and also showed evidence of a rickettsial endosymbiont. Here we discuss recent reports of morphological anomalies in I. scapularis, and emphasize the significance of additional studies of teratology in this important tick species and its potential implications.
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research

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In this study, we applied complementary in silico approaches to modeling how Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection modulates tick vector regulome. This proof-of-concept research provided support for the use of network analysis in the study of regulome response to infection, resulting in new information on tick-pathogen interactions and potential targets for developing interventions for the control of tick infestations and pathogen transmission. Deciphering the precise nature of circuits that shape the tick regulome in response to pathogen infection is an area of research that in the future will advance our knowledge of tick-...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Abstract Climate warming and other environmental changes have contributed to the expansion of the range of several tick species into higher latitudes in North America. As temperatures increase in Canada, the environment becomes more suitable for ticks and the season suitable for tick activity lengthens, so tick-borne diseases are likely to become more common in Canada. In addition to Lyme disease, four other tick-borne diseases (TBDs) have started to emerge and are likely to increase: Anaplasmosis; Babesiosis; Powassan virus; and Borrelia miyamotoi disease. Increased temperature increases the survival and activity...
Source: Can Commun Dis Rep - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Can Commun Dis Rep Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 17 October 2018Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Christine A. James, David L. Pearl, L. Robbin Lindsay, Andrew S. Peregrine, Claire M. JardineAbstractIn eastern North America, the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, is the vector for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causal agents for human and canine Lyme disease and anaplasmosis, respectively. The extensive range expansion of I. scapularis in Ontario is a growing veterinary and public health concern. However, there is limited information on the risk factors associated with I. scapularis...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Lars Eisen The blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis, is the primary vector to humans in the eastern United States of the deer tick virus lineage of Powassan virus (Powassan virus disease); the protozoan parasite Babesia microti (babesiosis); and multiple bacterial disease agents including Anaplasma phagocytophilum (anaplasmosis), Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia mayonii (Lyme disease), Borrelia miyamotoi (relapsing fever-like illness, named Borrelia miyamotoi disease), and Ehrlichia muris eauclairensis (a minor causative age...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 December 2017 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Andrea Egizi, Vivien Roegner, Ary Faraji, Sean P. Healy, Terry L. Schulze, Robert A. Jordan Historical specimens, when available, can provide new insight into the distribution and evolution of pathogens that may not be discernible from more recent samples. We used ticks collected from hunter-killed white-tailed deer in New Jersey in 2002 to examine the prevalence and distribution of four pathogens transmitted by Ixodes scapularis, the blacklegged tick. Infection with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto, Babesia microti, and ...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 10 December 2017 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Christine B. Graham, Sarah E. Maes, Andrias Hojgaard, Amy C. Fleshman, Sarah W. Sheldon, Rebecca J. Eisen The incidence and geographic range of tick-borne illness associated with Ixodes scapularis and Ixodes pacificus have dramatically increased in recent decades. Anaplasmosis, babesiosis, and Borrelia spirochete infections, including Lyme borreliosis, account for tens of thousands of reported cases of tick-borne disease every year. Assays that reliably detect pathogens in ticks allow investigators and public health agencie...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
Ticks and the diseases they carry have long been recognized as health concerns, especially in the warmer months when ticks (and humans) are more active. Ticks wait on grass tips or shrubs to latch onto new hosts when they brush by. Most of the hosts are animals, but a few tick species do bite and feed on humans. While doing so, they can transmit bacteria and viruses through their saliva. But here’s what’s changing: Tick species are being found in a wider geographic range. The number of case reports of tick-borne illnesses is increasing. Scientists continue to identify new pathogens (bacteria and viruses that c...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Health Infectious diseases Prevention Safety Travel health Source Type: blogs
Ticks and the diseases they carry have long been recognized as health concerns, especially in the warmer months when ticks (and humans) are more active. Ticks wait on grass tips or shrubs to latch onto new hosts when they brush by. Most of the hosts are animals, but a few tick species do bite and feed on humans. While doing so, they can transmit bacteria and viruses through their saliva. But here’s what’s changing: Tick species are being found in a wider geographic range. The number of case reports of tick-borne illnesses is increasing. Scientists continue to identify new pathogens (bacteria and viruses that c...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Health Infectious diseases Prevention Safety Travel health Source Type: blogs
“Doesn’t it typically happen during the summer?” asked a worried lady that had walked into my clinic in November with a growing circular rash on her wrist. She was referring, of course, to Lyme disease, that scourge of outdoor enthusiasts. While the peak season for Lyme disease is indeed summer, the ticks that transmit it are active March through December. And, while this may be off-season for the ticks, it is a good time to catch up on how to stay safe in the not-so-distant spring. What is Lyme disease, and how do you treat it? Lyme disease is caused by a bacterium called Borrelia burgdorferi which is sp...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Health Infectious diseases Prevention Source Type: blogs
Publication date: Available online 16 January 2017 Source:Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases Author(s): Danielle Wroblewski, Linda Gebhardt, Melissa A. Prusinski, Lisa J. Meehan, Tanya A. Halse, Kimberlee A. Musser Borrelia miyamotoi (Bm) is a recently emerging bacterial agent transmitted by several species of ixodid ticks. Diagnosis of Bm infection can be challenging, as the organism is not easily cultivable. We have developed and validated a multiplex real-time PCR to simultaneously identify Bm infection and the agents causing human granulocytic anaplasmosis and human monocytic ehrlichiosis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehr...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
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