Brain volumetry in Parkinson's disease with and without dementia: where are the differences?

Brain volumetry in Parkinson's disease with and without dementia: where are the differences? Acta Radiol. 2013 Mar 10; Authors: Lee SH, Kim SS, Tae WS, Lee SY, Lee KU, Jhoo J Abstract BackgroundCognitive dysfunction is well documented in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, association between regional brain volume change and cognitive decline of PD is uncertain.PurposeTo compare regional brain volume difference between PD without dementia (PDND) and PD with dementia (PDD).Material and MethodsWe enrolled 16 normal controls (mean ± SD: 69.5 ± 6.31) and 32 sex-, age-matched patients with PD (16 PDND and 16 PDD patients with Hoehn &Yahr stage II or III). Cognitive function was assessed using mini-mental status examination (MMSE). Intracranial volume (ICV) and the hippocampal volumes were manually measured using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Regional gray/white matter volume changes were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry.ResultsAge, ICV, volume of gray matter volume (GMV), white matter, and hippocampi did not differ among the three groups. The regional GMV of PDD was significantly decreased in the areas of right middle frontal gyrus, short insular gyri, superior temporal gyri; both precuneus compared to PDND (uncorrected P
Source: Acta Radiologica - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Acta Radiol Source Type: research

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Fight Aging! publishes news and commentary relevant to the goal of ending all age-related disease, to be achieved by bringing the mechanisms of aging under the control of modern medicine. This weekly newsletter is sent to thousands of interested subscribers. To subscribe or unsubscribe from the newsletter, please visit: https://www.fightaging.org/newsletter/ Longevity Industry Consulting Services Reason, the founder of Fight Aging! and Repair Biotechnologies, offers strategic consulting services to investors, entrepreneurs, and others interested in the longevity industry and its complexities. To find out m...
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Cognitive impairment is a common feature in Parkinson's disease (PD) and other α-synucleinopathies as 80% of PD patients develop dementia within 20 years. Early cognitive changes in PD patients present as a dysexecutive syndrome, broadly characterized as a disruption of the fronto-striatal dopamine network. Cognitive deficits in other domains (recognition memory, attention processes and visuospatial abilities) become apparent with the progression of PD and development of dementia. In dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) the cognitive impairment develops early or even precedes parkinsonism and it is more pronounced in visu...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
The brain is an energy-hungry organ, and is sensitive to reductions in the blood supply of oxygen and nutrients. Cardiovascular aging can reduce that supply, whether through conditions such as heart failure, or the progressive loss of density in capillary networks that occurs throughout the body with advancing age, or an accelerated pace of rupture of tiny vessels in the brain, or disruption of the blood-brain barrier, allowing unwanted molecules and cells to enter the brain. Thus, as researchers here note, we would expect to see correlations between cardiovascular disease, or risk factors for cardiovascular disease, and d...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
Abstract BACKGROUND: We investigated the structural changes associated with Alzheimer's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson disease dementia by means of cortical thickness analysis. METHODS: Two hundred and forty-five participants: 76 Alzheimer's disease, 65 dementia with Lewy bodies, 29 Parkinson disease dementia and 76 cognitively normal controls underwent 3-T T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and clinical and cognitive assessments. We implemented FreeSurfer to obtain cortical thickness estimates to contrast patterns of cortical thinning across groups and their clinical correlates. RE...
Source: The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Aust N Z J Psychiatry Source Type: research
In this study we show, for the first time, significant alterations in cholesterol efflux capacity in adolescents throughout the range of BMI, a relationship between six circulating adipocyte-derived EVs microRNAs targeting ABCA1 and cholesterol efflux capacity, and in vitro alterations of cholesterol efflux in macrophages exposed to visceral adipose tissue adipocyte-derived EVs acquired from human subjects. These results suggest that adipocyte-derived EVs, and their microRNA content, may play a critical role in the early pathological development of ASCVD. Commentary on the Developing UK Government Position on Hea...
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Conclusions: The use of antidepressants, especially SNRIs, was associated with a shorter survival time of sCJD patients. The possible changes in neurotransmitters should be emphasized. Scientifically, this study may provide insights into the mechanism of CJD. Clinically, it may contribute to the early diagnosis of CJD.IntroductionDepression is common in the elderly. Its prevalence rate is as high as 11.19%, and this increases progressively with worsening cognitive impairment (1). The presence of depression is an acknowledged risk factor for dementia (2); it can even double the risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) (3, 4)...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Conclusion Taken together, evidence from animal and human studies demonstrates that the brain detects levels of circulating nutrients and hormones and consequently organizes an outward response that contributes to the regulation of whole-body glucose homeostasis. However, there are major knowledge gaps about the exact nature of this response and its relative importance compared to peripheral processes. As we have seen, animal studies have provided an anatomical map of CNS glucose regulation and have identified important neurons and neural circuits involved. Additionally, the CNS sensing of key nutrients and hormones has b...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Conclusion The key problem with the ND field is the lack of understanding in the events preceding the development of protein-based markers – such as Tau – currently used to diagnose NDs. By this stage, the diseases become more difficult to treat. SncRNAs play an important regulatory role in the maintenance of the homeostatic brain. Therefore, changes in their concentration levels can be indicative of mechanistic changes that could precede protein-based markers. One single sncRNA biomarker is unlikely to differentiate between diseases. However, a combination of sncRNA biomarkers could be illustrative of the me...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Beta Amyloid Deposition Is Not Associated With Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease Tracy R. Melzer1,2,3†, Megan R. Stark1,2†, Ross J. Keenan1,4, Daniel J. Myall1, Michael R. MacAskill1,2, Toni L. Pitcher1,2,3, Leslie Livingston1,2, Sophie Grenfell1, Kyla-Louise Horne1,2, Bob N. Young1, Maddie J. Pascoe1, Mustafa M. Almuqbel1,2,4, Jian Wang5, Steven H. Marsh6, David H. Miller1,2,7, John C. Dalrymple-Alford1,2,3,8 and Tim J. Anderson1,2,3,9* 1New Zealand Brain Research Institute, Christchurch, New Zealand 2Department of Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand 3Brain Rese...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Grand Total EEG Score Can Differentiate Parkinson's Disease From Parkinson-Related Disorders Ela Austria Barcelon1,2*, Takahiko Mukaino1, Jun Yokoyama1, Taira Uehara2, Katsuya Ogata2, Jun-ichi Kira1 and Shozo Tobimatsu2 1Department of Neurology, Neurological Institute, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan2Department of Clinical Neurophysiology, Neurological Institute, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan Background: Semi-quantitative electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis is easy to perform and has been used to differentiate dementias, as well ...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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