Organ toxicity of medicinal tumor therapy : Morphological correlates.

[Organ toxicity of medicinal tumor therapy : Morphological correlates]. Radiologe. 2013 Apr;53(4):329-35 Authors: Sedlaczek O, Grüllich C, Röthke M, Schlemmer HP, Kauczor HU Abstract UNLABELLED: CLINICAL/METHODOLOGICAL ISSUE: In antineoplastic chemotherapy classical cytostatic drugs are increasingly being supplemented by antibodies and so-called targeted therapies. In addition to the antineoplastic effect and general intolerance quite characteristic morphological changes can often be found and identified by the radiologist. The distinction between findings indicating side effects versus tumor progression or an infectious etiology is essential. FACTS AND CIRCUMSTANCES: Classical antineoplastic chemotherapy interacts with DNA and RNA synthesis, DNA repair or the mitosis process. In contrast modern targeted anticancer therapies act at the level of signal transduction pathways.Localized, organ-related changes are related to the metabolic characteristics of organs or anatomical features such as the properties of the local blood-tissue barrier. Toxicity associated findings often resemble fulminant tumor progression. EVALUATION: In new targeted anti-cancer therapies toxicity often occurs in a non-cumulative way; therefore, morphological changes are often precursors of the manifestation of clinical toxicity. PRACTICAL RECOMMENDATIONS: Oncological radiology requires increasingly active interdisciplinary dialogue in order to delineate morphological corre...
Source: Der Radiologe - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research

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This study shows that CA are released from periventricular and subpial regions to the cerebrospinal fluid and are present in the cervical lymph nodes, into which cerebrospinal fluid drains through the meningeal lymphatic system. We also show that CA can be phagocytosed by macrophages. We conclude that CA can act as containers that remove waste products from the brain and may be involved in a mechanism that cleans the brain. Moreover, we postulate that CA may contribute in some autoimmune brain diseases, exporting brain substances that interact with the immune system, and hypothesize that CA may contain brain markers that m...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Rajagopal Ramesh Anupama Munshi Tumor suppressor ARID1A, a subunit of the chromatin remodeling complex SWI/SNF, regulates cell cycle progression, interacts with the tumor suppressor TP53, and prevents genomic instability. In addition, ARID1A has been shown to foster resistance to cancer therapy. By promoting non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), ARID1A enhances DNA repair. Consequently, ARID1A has been proposed as a promising therapeutic target to sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapy and radiation. Here, we report that ARID1A is regulated by human antigen R (HuR), an RNA-binding protein that is highly expressed in a...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 11 December 2019Source: Pharmacology &TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Alice Bradbury, Sally Hall, Nicola Curtin, Yvette DrewAbstractThe DNA damage response (DDR) machinery is responsible for detecting DNA damage, pausing the cell cycle and initiating DNA repair. Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) protein is a key kinase at the heart of the DDR, responsible for sensing replication stress (RS) and signalling it to S and G2/M checkpoints to facilitate repair. In cancer, loss of G1 checkpoint control and activation of oncogenes that drive replication, result in cancer cells more likely t...
Source: Pharmacology and Therapeutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Some of the most common symptoms experienced by cancer patients are memory problems, difficulties with multitasking, and reduced attention and concentration. Historically, cancer patients with these symptoms were often diagnosed with depression. Research over the past decade has revealed that many cancer patients experience such symptoms as a consequence of specific damage to the brain caused by either their tumor or their treatment. While radiation to the brain has long been linked to causing cognitive difficulties, the effects of chemotherapy on brain structure and function have only recently been discovered. We now know...
Source: Harvard Health Blog - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Brain and cognitive health Cancer Memory Radiation Source Type: blogs
AbstractPARP (poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase) inhibitors represent a novel class of anti-cancer therapy; they take advantage of synthetic lethality and induce cell death by exploiting a defect in DNA repair. This class of medication was initially evaluated in patients with BRCA-associated tumors, but efficacy was also demonstrated in other populations. Since 2014, four PARP inhibitors have been approved in various indications: olaparib, niraparib, and rucaparib in high-grade serous ovarian cancer, and olaparib and talazoparib in metastatic breast cancer. The exact indications and study populations vary slightly between the di...
Source: Targeted Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In this study, we found that diallyl disulfide (DADS), an organosulfur compound, increased the sensitivity of yeast cells to DNA damage and has potential for development as an adjuvant drug for DNA damage-based cancer therapy. We induced HO endonuclease to generate a specific DNA double-strand break (DSB) by adding galactose to yeast and used this system to study how DADS affects DNA repair. In this study, we found that DADS inhibited DNA repair in single-strand annealing (SSA) system and sensitized SSA cells to a single DSB. DADS impaired DNA repair by inhibiting the protein levels of the DNA resection-related proteins Sa...
Source: DNA Repair - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: DNA Repair (Amst) Source Type: research
In conclusion, our data show how oncogenic and tumor-suppressive drivers of cellular senescence act to regulate surveillance processes that can be circumvented to enable SnCs to elude immune recognition but can be reversed by cell surface-targeted interventions to purge the SnCs that persist in vitro and in patients. Since eliminating SnCs can prevent tumor progression, delay the onset of degenerative diseases, and restore fitness; since NKG2D-Ls are not widely expressed in healthy human tissues and NKG2D-L shedding is an evasion mechanism also employed by tumor cells; and since increasing numbers of B cells express NKG2D ...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
In this study, we show the ability of U94 to exert its anticancer activity on three different TNBC cell lines by inhibiting DNA damage repair genes, cell cycle and eventually leading to cell death following activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Interestingly, we found that U94 acted synergistically with DNA-damaging drugs. Overall, we provide evidence that U94 is able to combat tumor cells with different mechanisms, thus attesting for the great potential of this molecule as a multi-target drug in cancer therapy.
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
In this study, analysis of antioxidant defense was performed on the blood samples from 184 "aged" individuals aged 65-90+ years, and compared to the blood samples of 37 individuals just about at the beginning of aging, aged 55-59 years. Statistically significant decreases of Zn,Cu-superoxide dismutase (SOD-1), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were observed in elderly people in comparison with the control group. Moreover, an inverse correlation between the activities of SOD-1, CAT, and GSH-Px and the age of the examined persons was found. No age-related changes in glutathione reductas...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Patients Selection for Immunotherapy in Solid Tumors: Overcome the Naïve Vision of a Single Biomarker. Biomed Res Int. 2019;2019:9056417 Authors: Signorelli D, Giannatempo P, Grazia G, Aiello MM, Bertolini F, Mirabile A, Buti S, Vasile E, Scotti V, Pisapia P, Cona MS, Rolfo C, Malapelle U, Group IY Abstract Immunotherapy, and in particular immune-checkpoints blockade therapy (ICB), represents a new pillar in cancer therapy. Antibodies targeting Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and Programmed Death 1 (PD-1)/Programmed Death Ligand-1 (PD-L1) demonstrated a relevant clinical value in a larg...
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Biomed Res Int Source Type: research
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