Shared pathways for neuroprogression and somatoprogression in neuropsychiatric disorders

Publication date: Available online 20 September 2019Source: Neuroscience &Biobehavioral ReviewsAuthor(s): Gerwyn Morris, Basant K. Puri, Adam J. Walker, Michael Maes, Andre F. Carvalho, Ken Walder, Michael BerkAbstractActivated immune-inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative stress (IO&NS) pathways and consequent mitochondrial aberrations are involved in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders including major depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. They offer independent and shared contributions to pathways underpinning medical comorbidities including insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, obesity and cardiovascular disease - herein conceptualized as somatoprogression. This narrative review of human studies aims to summarize relationships between IO&NS pathways, neuroprogression and somatoprogression. Activated IO&NS pathways, implicated in the neuroprogression of psychiatric disorders, affect the pathogenesis of comorbidities including insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, obesity and hypertension, and by inference, metabolic syndrome. These conditions activate IO&NS pathways, exacerbating neuroprogression in psychiatric disorders. The processes whereby proinflammatory cytokines, nitrosative and endoplasmic reticulum stress, NADPH oxidase isoforms, PPARγ inactivation, SIRT1 deficiency and intracellular signalling pathways impact lipid metabolism and storage are considered. Through associations between body mass index, chronic neuroinflammation and FTO exp...
Source: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate ultrasound time-harmonic elastography for quantifying aortic stiffness in vivo in the context of aging and arterial hypertension. Materials and Methods Seventy-four participants (50 healthy participants and 24 participants with long-standing hypertension) were prospectively included between January 2018 and October 2018, and underwent ultrasound time-harmonic elastography of the upper abdominal aorta. Compound maps of shear-wave speed (SWS) as a surrogate of tissue stiffness were generated from multifrequency wave fields covering the full field-of-view of B-mode ultr...
Source: Investigative Radiology - Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
ConclusionT1D prevalence is constantly increasing worldwide, but at slower pace in Africa in comparison to developed countries. Difficulties to access to high standard care and population poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa, represents a major independent factor of poor therapeutic observance.
Source: International Journal of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine - Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research
Publication date: October 2019Source: Pregnancy Hypertension, Volume 18Author(s): Laura A. Magee, Evelyne Rey, Elizabeth Asztalos, Eileen Hutton, Joel Singer, Michael Helewa, Terry Lee, Alexander G. Logan, Wessel Ganzevoort, Ross Welch, Jim G. Thornton, Peter von DadelszenAbstractThe international CHIPS Trial (Control of Hypertension In Pregnancy Study) enrolled 987 women with chronic (75%) or gestational (25%) hypertension. Pre-eclampsia developed in 48%; women remained on their allocated BP control and delivered an average of two weeks later. ‘Less tight’ control (target diastolic BP 100 mmHg) achieved BP t...
Source: Pregnancy Hypertension: An International Journal of Womens Cardiovascular Health - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
ConclusionsFindings from this study indicate that foetal rs5707 polymorphisms may play a significant role in PE/E development, especially among overweight or obese pregnant women in China.
Source: Pregnancy Hypertension: An International Journal of Womens Cardiovascular Health - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
ConclusionOverall hyperplasia incidence is increasing. While BMI is elevated, there was no upward trend observed. Does the insidious decline in age demographic suggest that hyperplasia is occurring in younger women? Our review did not demonstrate a continuous increase in atypia, however there was a higher incidence in the 2013 group, who were also the most obese. Adherence to best practice surveillance in our hospitals was falling short.
Source: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
ConclusionThis study supports the strong association between high BMI and endometrial cancer. Despite obesity presenting significant surgical challenges, complication rates are low considering the patient demographic. The shortest median length of stay was with vaginal and laparoscopic hysterectomy. Preoperative grading and staging are relatively accurate in our department. Confirmed recurrence rates are low, although a significant proportion of patients are still in follow-up. Clinical follow-up is not useful in detecting recurrence in the majority of patients, which supports a Self Directed Aftercare approach in the majo...
Source: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
ConclusionThe pinpoint accuracy of the bipolar method allowed for safe and complete dissection.
Source: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
ConclusionIn addition to clinical diagnosis, many demographic and health system factors are associated with use of robot-assistance for hysterectomy. This may indicate decreased access to the robot among underserved patient populations coupled with the capacity of large, urban facilities to make capital investments in robotic equipment.
Source: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
ConclusionThe technical considerations for performing a LeFort Colpocleisis include ruling out malignancy prior to surgery, adequate lateral channels for uterine drainage, the use of lidocaine with epinephrine, closure in multiple layers with excellent hemostasis and an aggressive posterior colpoperineorrhaphy.
Source: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
ConclusionThese modifications to the technique will help shorten operation times and reduce complications of LSC.
Source: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
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