Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 886: Zika Virus Pathogenesis: From Early Case Reports to Epidemics

Viruses, Vol. 11, Pages 886: Zika Virus Pathogenesis: From Early Case Reports to Epidemics Viruses doi: 10.3390/v11100886 Authors: Ryan D. Pardy Martin J. Richer For the first 60 years following its isolation, Zika virus (ZIKV) remained a relatively poorly described member of the Flaviviridae family. However, since 2007, it has caused a series of increasingly severe outbreaks and is now associated with neurological symptoms such as Guillain-Barré syndrome and congenital Zika syndrome (CZS). A number of reports have improved our understanding of rare complications that may be associated with ZIKV infection in adults, the areas of the body to which it spreads, and viral persistence in various tissues. Likewise, studies on the effect of ZIKV infection during pregnancy have identified risk factors for CZS and the impact this syndrome has on early childhood. Understanding these outcomes and the factors that drive ZIKV pathogenesis are key to developing vaccination and therapeutic approaches to avoid these severe and potentially debilitating symptoms.
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research

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In this study, we evaluated ATA as a potential antiviral drug against ZIKV replication. The antiviral activity of ATA against ZIKV replication in vitro showed median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 13.87 ± 1.09 μM and 33.33 ± 1.13 μM in Vero and A549 cells, respectively; without showing any cytotoxic effect in both cell lines (median cytotoxic concentration (CC50)> 1,000 μM). Moreover, ATA protected both cell types from ZIKV-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) and apoptosis in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. In addition, pre-treatment of Vero cells with ATA for up to 72 h also resulted...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusions Apart West Nile virus (78), thousands of congenital microcephaly cases, fetal brain tissue damage and neurological syndromes have been associated with ZIKV infection. Unfortunately, the epidemics of this mosquito born, and a relative stable virus is on a rise. Although congenital microcephaly is a rare disorder however, due to lack of standardized diagnostic test facilities, the incidence in the geographically widespread ZIKV epidemic regions is higher. Animals studies showed that ZIKV is a neurotropic virus. It directly targets the developing embryonic brain cells by inducing apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, and...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 10 March 2017 Source:Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine Author(s): Ahmad Ruzain Salehuddin, Haszianaliza Haslan, Norshalizah Mamikutty, Nurul Hannim Zaidun, Mohamad Fairuz Azmi, Mohamad Mu’izuddin Senin, Syed Baharom Syed Ahmad Fuad, Zar Chi Thent Zika virus is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that represents a public health emergency at the ongoing epidemic. Previously, this rare virus was limited to sporadic cases in Africa and Asia until its emergence in Brazil, South America in 2015, where it rapidly spread throughout the world. Recently, a high number of cases were reported...
Source: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine - Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research
Zika virus’ status as a global health threat may officially be over, but the disease’s impact is far from contained.  The World Health Organization decided in November to end its designation of Zika virus as a public health emergency, but that doesn’t mean that Zika virus has disappeared, explained Dr. Carlos Pardo-Villamizar, a clinical neurologist with an expertise in infectious disorders at Johns Hopkins Medicine. Alongside pressing concerns about how to prevent a resurgence of the disease, health care systems in Brazil and other countries that saw births of babies infected with the disease in ute...
Source: Science - The Huffington Post - Category: Science Source Type: news
Congress is currently debating the level of federal funding that should be made available to fight to reduce the spread of Zika. Administration officials working with local public health agencies on the ground have recently expressed fear that the funding levels are insufficient to prevent the disease from spreading. What is one overlooked concern? State budgets. Medicaid is jointly funded by states and the federal government and serves as a key financer of health care services if Zika spreads across the country this summer. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) recently released a bulletin to state Medicaid...
Source: Health Affairs Blog - Category: Health Management Authors: Tags: Equity and Disparities Medicaid and CHIP Public Health family planning States Zika Source Type: blogs
There are worrying signs that the United States is unprepared to contain a likely Zika virus outbreak this summer. The critical problems are: insufficient resources for mosquito control, surveillance, and health care; highly variable capabilities and quality of service among public health and mosquito abatement authorities; and weak legal powers to implement critical interventions. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) reports that 35 countries and territories in the Americas have confirmed local, vector-borne transmission of Zika since 2015. In the US, local mosquito-borne transmission has been reported in Puerto Ri...
Source: Health Affairs Blog - Category: Health Management Authors: Tags: Costs and Spending Equity and Disparities Featured Public Health CDC Congress outbreaks PAHO Prevention WHO Zika Zika virus Source Type: blogs
Follow me at @JohnRossMD Back in January, Dr. Anne Schuchat, Deputy Director of the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), didn’t seem all that worried about Zika. She expected it to cause only “very limited outbreaks” in the United States. Now, she’s not so sure. Last week, Dr. Schuchat admitted that Zika virus “seems to be a bit scarier than we initially thought.” Her unusual comments may be aimed partly at Congress, which has been reluctant to fund Zika control measures. But there are several reasons that public health officials are more nervous about Zika now than they were a few months ...
Source: New Harvard Health Information - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Family Planning and Pregnancy Health Infectious diseases Prevention Travel health zika zika virus Source Type: news
Associated with grave birth defects, the Zika virus tearing across Latin America could eventually affect more than half of the world's population. That's according to the London School of Hygiene &Tropical Medicine which agreed to an interview via email. Although the current epidemic in the Americas is being spread by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, according to Jimmy Whitworth, the School's Professor of International Public Health: "A number of mosquitos have been documented to carry the Zika virus. For example, the Aedes albopictus mosquito which resides in large parts of the U.S., southern Europe, and Asia is of...
Source: Healthy Living - The Huffington Post - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
Abstract The Zika virus outbreak has captivated the attention of the global audience and information has spread rapidly and wildly through the internet and other media channels. This virus was first identified in 1947, when it was isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey placed by British scientists working at the Yellow Fever Research Laboratory located in the Zika forest area of Uganda, hence its name, and is transmitted primarily by the mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. The fact that the rhesus macaque is an Asian species being placed in an African forest brings to mind the possibility of rapid adaptation of the vi...
Source: Journal of Autoimmunity - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: J Autoimmun Source Type: research
Follow me at @JohnRossMD Last week, the government of El Salvador gave what might be the strangest public health advice of all time: don’t get pregnant for the next two years. Officials in Colombia, Ecuador, and Jamaica have also warned women to avoid pregnancy, although only for the next several months. The reason for these unusual recommendations? An outbreak of Zika virus, currently raging in 21 countries in the Americas and the Caribbean, as well as the U.S. Virgin Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Samoa, and Cape Verde. Until recently, Zika was an obscure virus, confined to equatorial Africa and Asia, an...
Source: New Harvard Health Information - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Children's Health Family Planning and Pregnancy Infectious diseases Prevention Safety Source Type: news
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