Reflux esophagitis, functional and non-functional
Publication date: Available online 17 September 2019Source: Best Practice &Research Clinical GastroenterologyAuthor(s): Serhat BorAbstractThe pathogenesis of gastroesophageal reflux disease has been explained by acid-peptic model. However, related with the progress of the diagnostic modalities, another phenotypical group of patients were defined and called “functional disorders of the esophagus”. These patients are important because diagnosis is particularly difficult, co-morbid disorders especially psychiatric diseases are common, proton pump inhibitor response is low, and surgical results are very poor. Simpler and translational science studies are required in functional groups in order to differentiate from acid-peptic disorders. New and more accurate diagnostic modalities as well as therapeutic approaches are strongly needed in this particularly new and exciting era, especially in the effect of neuromodulators. Current diagnostic modalities should also be evaluated and in fact, normal values should be established. New medications, especially acting at the level of esophageal epithelium and intercellular spaces, might shift the paradigm.
ConclusionWrap necrosis is a life-threatening complication after N-SG. This case is shared to raise awareness of this complication. This was successfully managed by prompt laparoscopy and wrap resection. Ideally such complications should be referred to experts or centers with high volume of bariatric surgery.
Authors: Ghisa M, Barberio B, Savarino V, Marabotto E, Ribolsi M, Bodini G, Zingone F, Frazzoni M, Savarino E Abstract Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a complex disorder with heterogeneous symptoms and a multifaceted pathogenetic basis, which prevent a simple diagnostic algorithm or any categorical classification. Clinical history, questionnaires and response to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy are insufficient tools to make a conclusive diagnosis of GERD and further investigations are frequently required. The Lyon Consensus goes beyond the previous classifications and defines endoscopic and functional...
Conclusions: The prevalence of GU and DU has gradually decreased whereas that of RE has markedly increased in Japan. Inverse time trends of peptic ulcer and reflux esophagitis are significantly associated with reduced prevalence of HP infection. Key Messages:The prevalence of gastric and duodenal ulcer has gradually decreased whereas that of reflux esophagitis has markedly increased in Japan.The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Japan has greatly decreased from 49.8% to 31.2% during the 14 years (from 1996 to 2010).Inverse time trends of peptic ulcer and reflux esophagitis are associated with reduced prevalenc...
ConclusionsWe identified gaps between the practices of PCPs and the guidelines onH. pylori infection management, while guidelines on GERD management are well adopted. Simplification of the guidelines and exploring barriers towards their implementation by PCPs is warranted.
We present the first case report of benign oesophageal peptic stricture post-sleeve gastrectomy and its management. The management modalities for peptic stricture post-LSG include proton pump inhibitors, endoscopic dilatation and surgical management. Revisional Roux-en-Y gastric bypass along with optimal usage of serial dilatation and medical treatment has been shown to be an effective treatment for the same.
ConclusionsThis population base study demonstrated that patients with long-duration of PPI use are at a higher risk of developing asthma, regardless of age, gender, comorbidities, and medications.
Authors: Kim GH Abstract Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are used worldwide to treat of acid-related disorders such as peptic ulcer and gastroesophageal reflux disease and to prevent gastroduodenal injuries due to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. PPIs are the most potent inhibitors of gastric acid secretion currently available, and they are one of the most commonly prescribed classes of drugs because of their high efficacy and low toxicity. However, long-term PPI use causes histopathological changes such as parietal cell protrusion into the gland lumen, cystic dilation of gastric fundic glands, and foveolar epit...
ConclusionAt the population level, sulpiride may be frequently prescribed and apparently effective for PUD and GERD. SIP is associated with older age, hypertension, depression or anxiety comorbidities. Physicians should be aware of the neurogenic adverse effects, even when the drug is only used in low-dose or a short duration.
ConclusionsPPI prescription is often continued in HD patients. De-prescription is not a common practice in Japan. It remains unclear whether discontinuation of PPIs should be recommended in hemodialysis patients who have a high risk of gastrointestinal ulcer. Yet, considering the side effects and polypharmacy in the HD population, more discussions on preferable de-prescription of PPIs are needed.
In conclusion, omeprazole nephrotoxicity may be related to induction of oxidative stress and renal tubular cell death.