Focal Epilepsies: Immunologic and Inflammatory Mechanisms

There is increasing evidence documenting activation of inflammatory processes in focal epilepsies. This review article summarizes current data regarding immune mediated inflammatory processes in patients with symptomatic partial epilepsies such as mesial temporal sclerosis, focal cortical dysplasia, and Rasmussen's encephalitis. We have also reviewed several neuronal surface antibody–associated syndromes, which have been recently described with focal seizures as an important part of clinical presentation, such as antibody-associated limbic encephalitis and N-methyl-d-aspartic acid receptor antibody syndrome.
Source: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research

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A recent study suggested that Borna disease virus 1 (BoDV-1), which is carried by wild shrews in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, and Liechtenstein, could be a more common cause of severe or fatal encephalitis among people in endemic areas than previously realized.
Source: JAMA - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
This study confirms that administration of innate immune modulators can be used as a strategy to boost host innate immune responses and protect against neurotropic viruses reducing their pathogenic footprint.
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Post-herpetic anti-NMDAr AIE could arise several months after infection. Clinicians must be aware of this possibility, particularly if cognitive and/or psychiatric symptoms occurred after a remitting period. In our two cases, only rituximab was associated with clinical improvement.
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Whether Borna disease virus (BDV-1) is a human pathogen remained controversial until recent encephalitis cases showed BDV-1 infection could even be deadly. This called to mind previous evidence for an infectio...
Source: BMC Clinical Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
The malformations of cortical development (most FCD) were the most common pathological type for children cases in China with drug ‐resistant seizures. It was speculated further that the FCD patients with shorter duration of epilepsy before surgery seem to have a higher ratio of being seizure‐free after surgery. AbstractObjectivesThe drug ‐resistant seizures are characterized by frequent and severe onset of seizures in childhood. There is only little literature had extensively explored the types of pathological brain damage in Chinese children cases. The present study aims to investigate the histopathologic findings a...
Source: Brain and Behavior - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research
AbstractAerophagia is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by excessive swallowing of air associated with abdominal distension and pain, flatulence, belching, nausea, and vomiting. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an antecedent-based behavioral intervention on aerophagia with an adolescent female diagnosed with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS), severe intellectual disability, and herpes simplex virus infection of the central nervous system with chronic static encephalopathy. Results from a functional analysis and multiple-component aerophagia assessment suggested that aerop...
Source: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities - Category: Disability Source Type: research
AbstractContagious agalactia is a disease caused byMycoplasma agalactiae that leads to a reduction or complete stop of milk production. Caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE) is an infectious disease caused by a lentivirus of the Retroviridae family, member of the small ruminant lentivirus (SRLV) group. Although these diseases are caused by distinct pathogens, the clinical presentation is similar. Hence, this study aimed to perform a serological investigation, as well as to assess correlation between both diseases and risk factors associated in two mesoregions of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...
Source: Tropical Animal Health and Production - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
a Luis Giménez-Lirola Porcine circovirus 3 (PCV3) has been identified as a putative swine pathogen with a subset of infections resulting in stillborn and mummified fetuses, encephalitis and myocarditis in perinatal, and periarteritis in growing pigs. Three PCV3 isolates were isolated from weak-born piglets or elevated stillborn and mummified fetuses. Full-length genome sequences from different passages and isolates (PCV3a1 ISU27734, PCV3a2 ISU58312, PCV3c ISU44806) were determined using metagenomics sequencing. Virus production in cell culture was confirmed by qPCR, IFA, and in situ hybridization. In vivo repl...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
The malformations of cortical development (most FCD) were the most common pathological type for children cases in China with drug ‐resistant seizures. It was speculated further that the FCD patients with shorter duration of epilepsy before surgery seem to have a higher ratio of being seizure‐free after surgery. AbstractObjectivesThe drug ‐resistant seizures are characterized by frequent and severe onset of seizures in childhood. There is only little literature had extensively explored the types of pathological brain damage in Chinese children cases. The present study aims to investigate the histopathologic findings a...
Source: Brain and Behavior - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research
Abstract SUMMARYHerpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) can be responsible for life-threatening HSV encephalitis (HSE). The mortality rate of patients with HSE who do not receive antiviral treatment is 70%, with most survivors suffering from permanent neurological sequelae. The use of intravenous acyclovir together with improved diagnostic technologies such as PCR and magnetic resonance imaging has resulted in a reduction in the mortality rate to close to 20%. However, 70% of surviving patients still do not recover complete neurological functions. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop more effective treatments for a bet...
Source: Clinical Microbiology Reviews - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Clin Microbiol Rev Source Type: research
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