Consequences of dietary sugar consumption: A historical perspective

Abstract: The US industrial revolution led to a significant increase in the amount of dietary sugar consumed annually. The impact has become a public health crisis over the past several decades. The consequences are seen in the dramatic rise in rates of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease.
Source: The Nurse Practitioner - Category: Nursing Tags: Feature: SUGAR CONSUMPTION Source Type: research

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(NAFLD) is a global health problem, with an estimated prevalence of 30% among adults in industrialized countries, and associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. NAFLD is defined histologically and represents a spectrum from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, fibrosis and cirrhosis. Hepatic triglyceride droplet accumulation is considered the first feature in the natural history; in some patients, this is associated with inflammation and fibrosis, through the interaction of environmental and host factors.
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tags: Common european liver disorders Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 17 October 2019Source: Trends in Endocrinology &MetabolismAuthor(s): Daniela Stols-Gonçalves, G. Kees Hovingh, Max Nieuwdorp, Adriaan G. HolleboomThe prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is strongly increasing and may put patients at increased risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (asCVD). Both disease phenotypes often co-occur, in the case of obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus type 2, and the metabolic syndrome. We explore the pathogenesis of NAFLD, the epidemiology of asCVD in NAFLD patients, shared drivers of both phenotypes, and fact...
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Authors: D'Anna R, Santamaria A, Alibrandi A, Corrado F, DI Benedetto A, Facchinetti F Abstract Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is one of the most frequent complications of pregnancy and is characterized by a carbohydrate intolerance which is diagnosed with the oral glucose tolerance test. The prevalence of GDM in our population is about 12%, but risk factors like a previous GDM, ethnicity, a parent with diabetes mellitus type 2 and maternal overweight may increase its occurrence. Complications of GDM are a pre-term birth (before 37 wk gestation), macrosomia (birth weight ≥4 kg) and gestational hypertension....
Source: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology - Category: Nutrition Tags: J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) Source Type: research
The administration of a high fat content diet is an accelerating factor for metabolic syndrome, impaired glucose tolerance, and early type 2 diabetes. The present study aims to assess the impact of a high fat diet on tuberculosis progression and microbiota composition in an experimental animal model using a C3HeB/FeJ mouse strain submitted to single or multiple consecutive aerosol infections. These models allowed us to study the protection induced by Bacillus Calmette-Guérin vaccination as well as by the natural immunity induced by chemotherapy after a low dose Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Our results show ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Authors: Andreeva-Gateva PA, Mihaleva ID, Dimova II Abstract Diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases are part of the metabolic syndrome and share similar risk factors, including obesity, arterial hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Atherosclerosis and insulin resistance contribute to the development of the diseases, and subclinical inflammation is observed in both conditions. There are many proofs about the connection between epigenetic factors and different diseases, including diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Interestingly, recent studies show that at least some anti-diabetic drugs, as well as blockers of t...
Source: Postgraduate Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Postgrad Med Source Type: research
The Metabolic Syndrome may be tentatively defined as the clustering of several metabolic risk factors in the same individual. A progressively higher number of children and adolescents is affected by this syndrome worldwide, mainly as a consequence of the constant increase of the prevalence of obesity and sedentary habits. As obesity, the chance that the metabolic syndrome traks into adulthood is high. Moreover, the evidence of an association between the duration of the exposition to metabolic risk factors and morbidity and mortality justifies early treatment and prevention of the metabolic syndrome in both children and ado...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: GLP-1 RA therapy represents an important add-on therapy option for achieving decreased insulin doses, weight loss, and modest improvements in HbA1c levels without significantly increasing hypoglycemia risk in patients with T1DM. Patients who have detectable C-peptide and/or are overweight or cannot achieve glycemic goals without hypoglycemia have been found to benefit the most from GLP-1 RA therapy. Further studies are warranted to evaluate these agents' potential impact on clinical outcomes such as microvascular and macrovascular complications. PMID: 31612934 [PubMed - in process]
Source: American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy : AJHP - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Am J Health Syst Pharm Source Type: research
Abstract CONTEXT: Cotadutide is a dual receptor agonist with balanced glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucagon activity. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate different doses of cotadutide and investigate underlying mechanisms for its glucose-lowering effects. DESIGN/SETTING: Randomized, double-blind, phase 2a study conducted in two cohorts at five clinical trial sites. PATIENTS: 65 adult overweight/obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus; 63 completed the study; 2 were withdrawn due to AEs. INTERVENTION: Once-daily subcutaneous cotadutide or placebo for 49 days. Doses (50-300 µg) were uptitrat...
Source: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: J Clin Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research
ConclusionThese results indicate that enhanced brain insulin signaling transduction and brain glucose utilization play important roles in the antidiabetic effect of DJB.
Source: Obesity Surgery - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Nopal constitutes one of the most studied members of the Cactaceae family; its potential effects on human health have been described since ancient times, mostly through traditional medicine. The present work highlights the importance of this plant in the treatment of MetS related maladies and points out the importance of elucidating new compounds and their validation for the interactions of nutraceutical compounds which could be related with MetS. PMID: 31604414 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Current Pharmaceutical Design - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Pharm Des Source Type: research
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