Metabolic Insight of Neutrophils in Health and Disease

Neutrophils are the most abundant, short lived, and terminally differentiated leukocytes with distinct tiers of arsenals to counter pathogens. Neutrophils were traditionally considered transcriptionally inactive cells, but recent researches in the field led to a paradigm shift in neutrophil biology and revealed subpopulation heterogeneity, and functions pivotal to immunity and inflammation. Furthermore, recent unfolding of metabolic plasticity in neutrophils has challenged the long-standing concept of their sole dependence on glycolytic pathway. Metabolic adaptations and distinct regulations have been identified which are critical for neutrophil differentiation and functions. The metabolic reprogramming of neutrophils by inflammatory mediators or during pathologies such as sepsis, diabetes, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, glycogen storage diseases (GSDs), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer are now being explored. In this review, we discuss recent developments in understanding of the metabolic regulation, that may provide clues for better management and newer therapeutic opportunities for neutrophil centric immuno-deficiencies and inflammatory disorders.
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 19 October 2019Source: Practical Radiation OncologyAuthor(s): Barry S. Rosenstein
Source: Practical Radiation Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
ConclusionThese findings suggest that targeted research and interventions are necessary to address the specific needs of rural lymphoma patients and survivors. To address the disparity in health outcomes within rural populations, health care professionals and investigators can utilize these data to engage rural patients in treatment decision-making and research planning.
Source: Clinical Lymphoma Myeloma and Leukemia - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
ConclusionThe better prognosis in young patients is presumably due to their better physiological reserve and lower incidence of comorbidities. Efforts should be made in younger patients to diagnose early and treat aggressively.
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
We examined racial differences in hospitalization outcomes; length of stay (LOS) in hospital, mortality in hospital, post-operative complications in patients who underwent hysterectomy and discharge disposition. Patients were matched on age at primary diagnosis, insurance status, residential region, and median income of residential area, modified Deyo comorbidity index, stage of disease and treatment. Categorical outcomes were analyzed by conditional logistic regression accounting for matched study design and odds ratios (95%CI) were reported. LOS was analyzed using t-test and beta estimate for difference in means was repo...
Source: Cancer Epidemiology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 October 2019Source: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica BAuthor(s): Hui Deng, Weimin LiAbstractMonoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is a serine hydrolase that plays a crucial role catalysing the hydrolysis of monoglycerides into glycerol and fatty acids. It links the endocannabinoid and eicosanoid systems together by degradation of the abundant endocannabinoid 2-arachidaoylglycerol into arachidonic acid, the precursor of prostaglandins and other inflammatory mediators. MAGL inhibitors have been considered as important agents in many therapeutic fields, including anti-nociceptive, anxiolytic, anti-infl...
Source: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 October 2019Source: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica BAuthor(s): Honggang Xiang, Jifa Zhang, Congcong Lin, Lan Zhang, Bo Liu, Liang OuyangAbstractAutophagy, defined as a scavenging process of protein aggregates and damaged organelles mediated by lysosomes, plays a significant role in the quality control of macromolecules and organelles. Since protein kinases are integral to the autophagy process, it is critically important to understand the role of kinases in autophagic regulation. At present, intervention of autophagic processes by small-molecule modulators targeting specific kinases has bec...
Source: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 October 2019Source: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica BAuthor(s): Zongru Jiang, Li Wang, Xuesong Liu, Cheng Chen, Beilei Wang, Wenliang Wang, Chen Hu, Kailin Yu, Ziping Qi, Qingwang Liu, Aoli Wang, Jing Liu, Guangchen Hong, Wenchao Wang, Qingsong LiuAbstractAngiogenesis is an essential process in tumor growth, invasion and metastasis. VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) inhibitors targeting tumor angiogenic pathway have been widely used in the clinical cancer treatment. However, most of currently used VEGFR2 kinase inhibitors are multi-target inhibitors which might result in target-associated side effect...
Source: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica B - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Source: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
AbstractPurposeThe identification of biomarkers characterizing the invasive potential of bladder cancer could enhance the clinical management of individual patients and therefore improve prognosis. The aim of this study was to define a miRNA panel in tumor tissues as well as in urinary extracellular vesicles (EVs) for discriminating muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) from non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC).MethodsmiRNA expression was analyzed in 24 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor samples by microarray analysis and was further validated by qRT-PCR in 56 FFPE tumor samples as well as in 37 urinary E...
Source: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
ConclusionPresumed higher anti-leukemic activity of RIC versus NMA conditioning did not translate into better outcomes after alloHSCT, but better remission status prior to conditioning did. Effective pathway inhibitor-based salvage therapies combined with NMA conditioning might thus represent the most attractive contemporary approach for alloHSCT for patients with CLL.
Source: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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