Assessment of the anti-Salmonella activity of commercial formulations of organic acid products.

Assessment of the anti-Salmonella activity of commercial formulations of organic acid products. Avian Pathol. 2013 Apr 22; Authors: Wales A, McLaren I, Rabie A, Gosling RJ, Martelli F, Sayers R, Davies R Abstract Organic acid products are widely used in the UK poultry industry as feed or water additives. Claims for Salmonella control are made for some of these products, but there are few studies comparing the anti-Salmonella effect of the various products in tests that reflect field application. The present studies examined the effects of 13 commercial blends (four water products and nine feed products) on Salmonella Enteritidis and Typhimurium strains. Initial screening, in nutrient broth, of all products with all strains revealed little variation between strains in respect of maximum inhibitory and bactericidal dilutions of each product. However, between the products there was wide and significant variation in the maximum inhibitory and bactericidal dilutions, spanning a 700-fold range in the case of bactericidal dilutions for feed-associated products. Further tests were performed, examining reductions in inoculated Salmonella numbers in various matrices (water, feed, soiled litter, crop and caecal contents) following the addition of the products at recommended inclusion rates. One product, incorporating formaldehyde in addition to organic acid, was consistently most active in all matrices, exceeding reductions associated with other products by 1 to 3 log u...
Source: Avian Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 25 September 2020Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Honghong Xian, Yu Yuan, Chao Yin, Zhenyu Wang, Ruoyun Ji, Chao Chu, Xinan Jiao, Qiuchun Li
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
In conclusion, this is the first report of co-infection of SE with H9N2-AIV in chickens, which leads to increased pathogenicity, SE faecal shedding and organ colonization, and H9N2-AIV shedding titre and duration, resulting in substantial economic losses and environmental contamination, ultimately leading to increased zoonoses. PMID: 32835500 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Avian Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
This study investigated the effect of intact peptidoglycan from L. rhamnosus MLGA on the induction of avian β-defensin 9 in chicken immune cells and intestinal explants. Peptidoglycan from Lactobacillus rhamnosus MLGA dose dependently promoted avian β-defensin 9 mRNA expression in chicken PBMCs, splenocytes, thymocytes, hepatocytes, and chicken embryo jejunum, ileum, and cecum explants and increased the capacity of PBMC or splenocyte lysates to inhibit the growth of Salmonella Enteritidis. In contrast to the effect of L. rhamnosus MLGA-derived peptidoglycan, peptidoglycan derived from pathogenic Staphylococcus au...
Source: Innate Immunity - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Innate Immun Source Type: research
Abstract Salmonella Infantis is a major public health concern and has become established in the broiler sector in some European countries, as well as globally, and is frequently multidrug resistant (MDR). Three broiler farms in England and Wales which had incursions of MDR S. Infantis between 2013 and 2017 were investigated longitudinally. The company feed mill and two associated hatcheries were intensively sampled. Following each visit advice on cleaning, disinfection and other control measures for Salmonella was given to help eliminate S. Infantis from the premises. Four samples collected from inside the broiler...
Source: Avian Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
In conclusion, this analysis has identified genetic features encoding putative factors controlling host-specificity in S. Pullorum. The novel bioinformatic workflow and associated scripts can directly be applied to other bacteria to uncover the genome difference between clades. PMID: 32622081 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
In this study, the effects of aerosolized S. Pullorum were investigated on young chickens. The results showed that the colonization and morbidity induced by bioaerosol infection are dose dependent. The bacteria colonized in chicken lung for more than 14 days on exposure of ≥ 1.25 × 106 cfu/m3 of aerosolized S. Pullorum. Tachypnea and depression were present in all the chickens between 5-7 days after infection, and some died, on exposure of ≥ 1.25 × 108 cfu/m3 of aerosolized S. Pullorum. RT-PCR results showed that significant expressions of inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor α (T...
Source: Avian Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
by Matt Bawn, Nabil-Fareed Alikhan, Ga ëtan Thilliez, Mark Kirkwood, Nicole E. Wheeler, Liljana Petrovska, Timothy J. Dallman, Evelien M. Adriaenssens, Neil Hall, Robert A. KingsleySalmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a leading cause of gastroenteritis and bacteraemia worldwide, and a model organism for the study of host-pathogen interactions. TwoS. Typhimurium strains (SL1344 and ATCC14028) are widely used to study host-pathogen interactions, yet genotypic variation results in strains with diverse host range, pathogenicity and risk to food safety. The population structure of diverse strains of...
Source: PLoS Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Source Type: research
Abstract H9N2, a low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) virus, causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry worldwide. Herein, we describe the construction of an attenuated Salmonella Gallinarum (SG) strain for expression and delivery of H9N2 hemagglutinin (HA) 1 (SG-HA1), HA2 (SG-HA2) and/or the conserved matrix protein 2 ectodomain (SG-M2e). We demonstrated that recombinant SG strains expressing HA1, HA2 and M2e antigens were immunogenic and safe in a chicken model. Chickens (N=8) were vaccinated once orally with SG alone, SG-HA1, SG-HA2, SG-M2e, or mixture of SG-HA1, SG-HA2 and SG-M2e, or vaccinate...
Source: Avian Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Avian Pathol Source Type: research
Once a dangerous new pathogen is out, as we are seeing, it can be difficult if not impossible to prevent it going global. One as contagious as SARS-CoV-2 has the potential to infect the whole of humanity. Eighty per cent of cases may be benign, but with such a large pool of susceptible hosts, the numbers who experience severe illness and die can still be shockingly high. So the only sensible answer to the question, how do we stop this from happening again, is: by doing all we can to prevent such pathogens infecting humans in the first place. And that means taking a long, hard look at our relationship with the natural world...
Source: TIME: Health - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Uncategorized COVID-19 Source Type: news
The objective of this study was to determine changes in avian β-defensin (AvBD) and liver-enriched antimicrobial peptide 2 (LEAP2) mRNA following Salmonella challenge. Day of hatch chicks were challenged with 106, 107 or 108 colony-forming units (cfu) of Salmonella typhimurium. There were dose-, tissue- and age-specific changes in AvBD and LEAP2 mRNA. At 1-day post-infection (dpi) there was a transient upregulation of AvBD1, 8, 10 and 12 mRNA in the 108 cfu group. At 5 dpi, all seven AvBD mRNA were downregulated in the ileum, while only AvBD1, 6, 10 and 11 mRNA were downregulated in the jejunum and AvBD6, 8, 10...
Source: Animal Biotechnology - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tags: Anim Biotechnol Source Type: research
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