Helminth-microbiota cross-talk – a journey through the vertebrate digestive system

Publication date: Available online 18 September 2019Source: Molecular and Biochemical ParasitologyAuthor(s): Alba Cortés, Laura Peachey, Riccardo Scotti, Timothy P Jenkins, Cinzia CantacessiAbstractThe gastrointestinal (GI) tract of vertebrates is inhabited by a vast array of organisms, that is, the microbiota and macrobiota. The former is composed largely of commensal microorganisms, which play vital roles in host nutrition and maintenance of energy balance, in addition to supporting the development and function of the vertebrate immune system. By contrast, the macrobiota includes parasitic helminths, which are mostly considered detrimental to host health via a range of pathogenic effects that depend on parasite size, location in the GI tract, burden of infection, metabolic activity, and interactions with the host immune system. Sharing the same environment within the vertebrate host, the GI microbiota and parasitic helminths interact with each other, and the results of such interactions may impact, directly or indirectly, on host health and homeostasis. The complex relationships occurring between parasitic helminths and microbiota have long been neglected; however, recent studies point towards a role for these interactions in the overall pathophysiology of helminth disease, as well as in parasite-mediated suppression of inflammation. Whilst several discrepancies in qualitative and quantitative modifications in gut microbiota composition have been described based on h...
Source: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 19 October 2019Source: Veterinary ParasitologyAuthor(s): Rogério F. de Jesus, Waléria Borges-Silva, Taynar L. Bezerra, Leane Q. Gondim, Rosângela S. Uzêda, Luís F.P. GondimAbstractSarcocystis neurona is the major cause of the equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) in the Americas and has opossums of the genus Didelphis as definitive hosts. Most isolates of Sarcocystis sp. shed by opossums in Brazil differ genetically from the known species of Sarcocystis. These Brazilian isolates behave similarly as Sarcocystis falcatula, which causes sarcocystosis in bi...
Source: Veterinary Parasitology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Authors: Ben-Harari RR Abstract Introduction: Infection with Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) causes the disease toxoplasmosis in humans and animals. Oral transmission alone may not explain the widespread distribution of this parasite over large species of host animals and geographic areas. Areas covered: Limited studies indicate the potential role of ticks in the distribution of T. gondii. The possibility of transmission of T. gondii has been demonstrated in Dermacentor variabilis, Dermacentor andersoni, Amblyomma americanum, Dermacentor reticulatus, Ixodes ricinus, Ixodes amblyomma, Amblyomma cajennense, Ornithodoru...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
Publication date: October 2019Source: Journal of Comparative Pathology, Volume 172Author(s): P. Wohlsein, H. Seibel, A. Beineke, W. Baumgärtner, U. SiebertSummaryHearing represents the major sense in harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) and impairment of hearing has a great impact on the survival of these animals. In this communication, some anatomical and histological aspects of the tympanoperiotic complex of harbour porpoises are presented. In addition, the ears of 21 incidentally bycaught or stranded freshly dead harbour porpoises of different age groups and sex were investigated histologically. At the entrance to...
Source: Journal of Comparative Pathology - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 19 October 2019Source: Microbial PathogenesisAuthor(s): Kailey Perez, Nathan Mullen, Jessica A. Canter, David H. Ley, Meghan MayAbstractThe avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is a known pathogen of poultry, and newly emerged pathogen of house finches wherein it is associated with lethal conjunctivitis. Factors present in MG that are known to mediate virulence include cytadherence, sialidase activity, peroxide production, and biofilm formation. We have quantitatively assessed these factors for MG isolates from house finches from a temporal and geographic distribution across the c...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 October 2019Source: Molecular and Biochemical ParasitologyAuthor(s): Felicity E. Lumb, Jenny Crowe, James Doonan, Colin J. Suckling, Colin Selman, Margaret M. Harnett, William HarnettAbstractOne of the most rapidly increasing human public health problems is obesity, whose sequelae like type-2 diabetes, represent continuously worsening, life-long conditions. Over the last 15 years, data have begun to emerge from human and more frequently, mouse studies, that support the idea that parasitic worm infection can protect against this condition. We have therefore investigated the potential of...
Source: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
We examined these roles in the immune responses against Plasmodium chabaudi infection using the Il-27ra−/− mice. While IL-27 was expressed at high levels during the early phase of the infection, enhanced CD4+ T cell function and reduction in parasitemia were observed mainly during the chronic phase in the mutant mice. In mice infected with P. chabaudi and cured with drug, CD4+ T cells in the Il-27ra−/− mice exhibited enhanced CD4+ T-cell responses, indicating the inhibitory role of IL-27 on the protective immune responses. To determine the role of IL-27 in detail, we performed CD4+ T-cell transfer e...
Source: Parasitology International - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
In conclusion, the present study demonstrates the high seroprevalence of T. gondii in small ruminants in Mongolia. Our results highlight that country-wide control measures are required to minimize infections in livestock.Graphical abstract
Source: Parasitology International - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 October 2019Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Caio Monteiro, Letícia Coelho Miranda Brito, Luiza Gabriella Ferreira de Paula, Éverton Kort Kamp Fernandes, Claudia Dolinski, Vânia Rita Elias Pinheiro Bittencourt, John Furlong, Márcia Cristina de Azevedo PrataAbstractThe present study evaluated, in the laboratory, the virulence of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora LPP30 against engorged females of Rhipicephalus microplus; in addition, we evaluated, in semi-field tests, the effects of four isolates of Heterorhabditis spp. (i.e., H. bacteriophora HP88, ...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 18 October 2019Source: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering AspectsAuthor(s): Amy L. Polaczyk, James E. Amburgey, Amir Alansari, Jordan C. Poler, Marco Propato, Vincent R. HillAbstractThe electrophoretic mobilities (EPM’s) of fifteen different microbes (6 viruses, 5 vegetative bacteria, 2 bacterial endospores, 2 protozoa) and one microbial particle surrogate (Polystyrene microspheres) were measured, and five models were used to convert EPM's of these microorganisms to zeta potentials. The Helmholtz-Smoluchowski, Hückel-Onsager, Henry, modified Booth, and O&r...
Source: Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Conclusions: ivA was highly efficacious in this pediatric cohort. We observed episodes of mild to moderate posttreatment hemolysis in approximately one-third of patients. The legal status and usage of potentially lifesaving ivA should be evaluated in Europe.
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research
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