Machine learning for radiomics-based multi-modality and multi-parametric modeling.

Machine learning for radiomics-based multi-modality and multi-parametric modeling. Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 2019 Sep 13;: Authors: Wei L, Osman S, Hatt M, El Naqa I Abstract Due to the recent developments of both hardware and software technologies, multimodality medical imaging techniques have been increasingly applied in clinical practice and research studies. Previously, the application of multimodality imaging in oncology has been mainly related to combining anatomical and functional imaging to improve diagnostic specificity and/or target definition, such as positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT. More recently, the fusion of various images, such as multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences, different PET tracer images, PET/MRI, has become more prevalent, which has enabled more comprehensive characterization of the tumor phenotype. In order to take advantage of these valuable multimodal data for clinical decision making using radiomics, we present two ways to implement the multimodal image analysis, namely radiomic (handcrafted feature) based and deep learning (machine learned feature) based methods. Applying advanced machine (deep) learning algorithms across multi-modality images have shown better results compared with single modality modeling for prognostic and/or prediction of clinical outcomes. This holds great potentials for providing more personalized ...
Source: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging - Category: Nuclear Medicine Tags: Q J Nucl Med Mol Imaging Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 9 November 2019Source: Epilepsy &BehaviorAuthor(s): Kristie Bauman, Orrin Devinsky, Anli A. LiuAbstractCareful study of the clinical outcomes of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) surgery has greatly advanced our knowledge of the neuroanatomy of human memory. After early cases resulted in profound amnesia, the critical role of the hippocampus and associated medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures to declarative memory became evident. Surgical approaches quickly changed to become unilateral and later, to be more precise, potentially reducing cognitive morbidity. Neuropsychological studies foll...
Source: Epilepsy and Behavior - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Abstract Careful study of the clinical outcomes of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) surgery has greatly advanced our knowledge of the neuroanatomy of human memory. After early cases resulted in profound amnesia, the critical role of the hippocampus and associated medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures to declarative memory became evident. Surgical approaches quickly changed to become unilateral and later, to be more precise, potentially reducing cognitive morbidity. Neuropsychological studies following unilateral temporal lobe resection (TLR) have challenged early models, which simplified the lateralization of verbal a...
Source: Epilepsy and Behaviour - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Epilepsy Behav Source Type: research
Authors: Lai CH Abstract The neuroimaging has been applied in the study of pathophysiology in major depressive disorder (MDD). In this review article, several kinds of methodologies of neuroimaging would be discussed to summarize the promising biomarkers in MDD. For the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetoencephalography field, the literature review showed the potentially promising roles of frontal lobes, such as anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). In addition, the limbic regions, such as hippocampus and amygdala, might be the potentially p...
Source: Psychiatry Investigation - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Psychiatry Investig Source Type: research
AbstractWe aimed to investigate whether the frontal lobe bottom and cerebellum tuber vermis (FLB –CTV) line on brain perfusion scintigraphy, using iodine-123 isopropyl iodoamphetamine single photon emission computed tomography (I-123 IMP SPECT) images, is useful to determine an axial angle parallel to the anterior commissure-posterior commissure (AC–PC) line. We measured the angular differe nces between the AC–PC line and the FLB–CTV line on midsagittal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 100 patients. We also evaluated the angular differences of the FLB–CTV line between the IMP SP...
Source: Radiological Physics and Technology - Category: Physics Source Type: research
Authors: Shao T, Josephson L, Liang SH Abstract Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a significant public health challenge afflicting approximately 1 billion individuals both in the Western world and in the East world. While liver biopsy is considered as gold standard in the diagnosis and staging of liver fibrosis, noninvasive imaging technologies, including ultrasonography, computed tomography, single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography (PET) could offer more sensitive, comprehensive, and quantitative measurement for NAFLD. In this review...
Source: Molecular Imaging - Category: Radiology Tags: Mol Imaging Source Type: research
Conclusions Bupropion has previously generally been discontinued 1 week prior DAT imaging, which meets the recommended, albeit arbitrary, time interval of 5 plasma clearance half-lives before the scan. One-week discontinuation of bupropion before DAT imaging may be insufficiently short. Our case shows that longer medication washout and rescan may be needed when there is contradiction between the imaging result and clinical outcome in patients with medications affecting DAT binding.
Source: Clinical Neuropharmacology - Category: Neurology Tags: Case Reports Source Type: research
Authors: Nishida H, Hayashi Y, Ban Y, Kudo T, Harada N, Sakurai T Abstract A 61-year-old dextral woman was admitted to the hospital with difficulty finding words. Neurological examinations confirmed that her speech was affected by frequent pauses and occasional phonological paraphasia without cognitive deficits. We detected atrophy, hypoperfusion, and hypometabolism in the right perisylvian and parietal regions, expanding to the right anterior temporal lobes and right inferior frontal gyrus (opercular region) by magnetic resonance imaging, single-photon emission computed tomography, and fluorodexyglucose-positron e...
Source: Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Intern Med Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The requirements of imaging are determined by clinical presentation, laboratory findings, tumor stage, the presence of a tumor syndrome and the need of a personalized systemic treatment modality. PMID: 31359091 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Der Radiologe - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Radiologe Source Type: research
AbstractLiposome is one of the oldest yet most successful nanomedicine platforms. Doxil ®, PEGylated liposome loaded with doxorubicin (DOX), was approved by the FDA in 1995 for the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma, and it was the first approval for nanomedicine. Since then, liposome-based therapeutics were approved for the treatment of various diseases and many clinical tr ials are underway. The success of the liposome-based therapeutics was due to following factors: (1) ease of synthesis, (2) biocompatibility, (3) the ability to load both hydrophilic and hydrophobic agents, and (4) long circulation pro...
Source: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging - Category: Nuclear Medicine Source Type: research
DISCUSSION: 18fluorocholine scanning can identify elusive parathyroid adenomas, including those that are ectopic, and is useful in the management of patients with persistent/recurrent primary hyperparathyroidism when first-line scans are negative. The grading of the arterial phase of computed tomography can help to differentiate between true adenomas and false positive targets (lymph nodes). PMID: 31305126 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England - Category: Surgery Authors: Tags: Ann R Coll Surg Engl Source Type: research
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