Enzymatic, antimicrobial, and leishmanicidal bioactivity of Gram-negative bacteria strains from the midgut of Lutzomyia evansi, an insect vector of leishmaniasis in Colombia

Publication date: Available online 18 September 2019Source: Biotechnology ReportsAuthor(s): Rafael J. Vivero, Gustavo Bedoya Mesa, Sara M. Robledo, Claudia Ximena Moreno Herrera, Gloria Cadavid-RestrepoAbstractKnowledge regarding new compounds, peptides, and/or secondary metabolites secreted by bacteria isolated from the intestine of phebotominae has the potential to control insect vectors and pathogens (viruses, bacteria, and parasites) transmitted by them. In this respect, twelve Gram-negative bacteria isolated from the intestine of Lutzomyia evansi were selected and screened for their enzymatic, antimicrobial, and leishmanicidal activity. E. cancerogenus, E. aerogenes, P. otitidis, E. cloacae, L. soli, and P. ananatis exhibited enzymatic activity. 83.3% of the isolates displayed lipolytic and nitrate reductase activity and 58.3% of the isolates displayed protease activity. Hemolytic activity (17%) was identified only in E. hormaechei, and P. ananatis. E. cancerogenus, A. calcoaceticus, and P. otitidis showed cellulolytic activity. A. gyllenbergii, P. aeruginosa, and E. hormaechei showed amylolytic activity. In general, the totality of methanolic extracts exhibited antimicrobial activity, where E. hormaechei, A. calcoaceticus, and E. cancerogenus presented the highest activity against the evaluated reference bacteria strains. Cell-free supernatants (CFSS) of the Gram-negative bacteria showed higher growth inhibitory activity against the reference Gram-positive bacteria. The...
Source: Biotechnology Reports - Category: Biotechnology Source Type: research

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Trypanosomatids of the genus Leishmania are parasites of mammals or reptiles transmitted by bloodsucking dipterans. Many species of these flagellates cause important human diseases with clinical symptoms ranging ...
Source: BMC Genomics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
;s AM Abstract Glycosomes of trypanosomatids are peroxisome-like organelles comprising unique metabolic features, among which the lack of the hallmark peroxisomal enzyme catalase. The absence of this highly efficient peroxidase from glycosomes is presumably compensated by other antioxidants, peroxidases of the peroxiredoxin (PRX) family being the most promising candidates for this function. Here, we follow on this premise and investigate the product of a Leishmania infantum gene coding for putative glycosomal PRX (LigPRX). First, we demonstrate that LigPRX localizes to glycosomes, resorting to indirect immunofluor...
Source: Acta Tropica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research
Altered sialylation is generally maintained by a fine balance between sialidases and sialyltransferases, which plays an essential role during disease pathogenesis. TLR4 is a membrane-bound highly sialylated glycoprotein predominantly having α2,3-linked sialic acids. It is one of the most important client molecules in the anti-leishmanial innate immune arm. Here, we initiated a comprehensive study on the modulation of TLR4 sialylation in Leishmania donovani (L. d)-infected macrophages by a mammalian sialidase/neuraminidase-1 (Neu1) having substrate specificity toward α2,3-linked sialic acids. We observed reduced...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
AbstractObjectivesThein vitro antileishmanial effect of analogues of resveratrol (AR) present in the N ‐aryl imines and N‐aryl hydrazones series was investigated. In addition, possible parasite targets were evaluated.MethodsAntipromastigote activity ofLeishmania amazonensis,L. braziliensis andL. infantum, as well as the cytotoxicity on macrophages was determined by MTT assay andL.  braziliensis‐infected macrophages effect by Giemsa stain. After staining, effects on the parasite targets were analysed by flow cytometry or by fluorescence microscopy.Key ‐findingsAmong the tested compounds, the derivativeAR26 show...
Source: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
This study showed a high failure rate for HECT-CL thermotherapy in this setting. Leishmania tropica is known to be less sensitive to antileishmanial drugs, more temperature-resistant, and spontaneous healing is slower than that in L. major. More research is needed to identify low-cost, effective, and more patient-friendly treatment for L. tropica. PMID: 31595864 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
ConclusionsOur results indicated a number of plants and their parts to have antiparasitic activity not previously reported in the ethnopharmacological literature. Enhanced understanding of the primate diets, particularly during periods of intensified parasite infection risk may help to further narrow down plants of interest for lead compound development. The study of animal self-medication is a complementary approach, with precedence, to drug discovery of new lead drug compounds against human parasitic diseases.Graphical abstract
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Disease manifestation after infection with cutaneous Leishmania species is the result of a complex interplay of diverse factors, including the immune status of the host, the infecting parasite species, or the parasite load at the lesion site. Understanding how these factors impact on the pathology of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) may provide new targets to manage the infection and improve clinical outcome. We quantified the relative expression of 170 genes involved in a diverse range of biological processes, in the skin biopsies from patients afflicted with CL caused by infection with either L. major or L. tropica. As compa...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
ConclusionsIn this previously unpublished study of trypanosomatids, it is shown that AAATs could also exhibit selective antileishmanial activity, a new possibility to be investigated in oral treatment of leishmaniasis.
Source: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
The Leishmania spp. protozoa are sandfly-borne intracellular parasites that are responsible for the leishmaniases, a complex of diseases with important clinical implication.1 In humans, the major clinical forms are cutaneous, mucocutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, the latter being fatal if untreated. Most leishmanial infections remain asymptomatic in immunocompetent individuals; for example, the ratio of subclinical to clinical cases of Leishmania infantum infection has been reported to be around 50:1 in Spain.
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
S. R. Maruyama et al.
Source: Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
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