Nitric oxide-loaded chitosan nanoparticles as an innovative antileishmanial platform

Publication date: Available online 18 September 2019Source: Nitric OxideAuthor(s): Fernanda V. Cabral, Milena T. Pelegrino, Ismael P. Sauter, Amedea B. Seabra, Mauro Cortez, Martha S. RibeiroAbstractLeishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease that demands for new therapeutic strategies due to adverse side effects and resistance development promoted by current drugs. Nitric oxide (NO)-donors show potential to kill Leishmania spp. but their use is limited because of their instability. In this work, we synthesize, characterize, and encapsulate S-nitroso-mercaptosuccinic acid into chitosan nanoparticles (NONPs) and investigate their activity on promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis. Cytotoxicity on macrophages was also evaluated. We verified that NONPs reduced both forms of the parasite in a single treatment. We also noticed reduction of parasitophorous vacuoles as an evidence of inhibition of parasite growth and resolution of infection. No substantial cytotoxicity was detected on macrophages. NONPs were able to provide a sustained parasite killing for both L. (L.) amazonensis infective stages with no toxicity on macrophages, representing a promising nanoplatform for cutaneous leishmaniasis.Graphical abstract
Source: Nitric Oxide - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research

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Source: Parasitology International - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Comparative Pathology - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: Obligate intracellular parasites of Leishmania genus belong to family Trypanosomatidae and more than twenty species causes this neglected vector-borne infection throughout the globe. The current study was aimed to assess the antileishmanial activity of Amphotericin B (AmB) and AmB formulated into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) in vitro and in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present research, microemulsification and high shear homogenization methods were used to prepare SLNs. Leishmania major (L. major) promastigotes were cultured in RPMI 1640 and incubated for three time points of 2...
Source: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Infect Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research
The early inflammatory skin micromilieu affects resistance in experimental infection with Leishmania major. We pursue the concept that macrophages, which take up parasites during early infection, exert decisive influence on the inflammatory micromilieu after infection. In order to analyze their distinctive potential, we identified differentially regulated genes of murine granuloma macrophages (GMΦ) from resistant and susceptible mice after their infection with metacyclic Leishmania major. We found induction of several cytokines in GMΦ from both strains and a stronger upregulation of the transcription factor aryl hy...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Trypanosomatids of the genus Leishmania are parasites of mammals or reptiles transmitted by bloodsucking dipterans. Many species of these flagellates cause important human diseases with clinical symptoms ranging ...
Source: BMC Genomics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
;s AM Abstract Glycosomes of trypanosomatids are peroxisome-like organelles comprising unique metabolic features, among which the lack of the hallmark peroxisomal enzyme catalase. The absence of this highly efficient peroxidase from glycosomes is presumably compensated by other antioxidants, peroxidases of the peroxiredoxin (PRX) family being the most promising candidates for this function. Here, we follow on this premise and investigate the product of a Leishmania infantum gene coding for putative glycosomal PRX (LigPRX). First, we demonstrate that LigPRX localizes to glycosomes, resorting to indirect immunofluor...
Source: Acta Tropica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research
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Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
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Source: Am J Trop Med Hyg - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Am J Trop Med Hyg Source Type: research
ConclusionsOur results indicated a number of plants and their parts to have antiparasitic activity not previously reported in the ethnopharmacological literature. Enhanced understanding of the primate diets, particularly during periods of intensified parasite infection risk may help to further narrow down plants of interest for lead compound development. The study of animal self-medication is a complementary approach, with precedence, to drug discovery of new lead drug compounds against human parasitic diseases.Graphical abstract
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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