Cancers, Vol. 11, Pages 1396: Dendritic Cell-Based and Other Vaccination Strategies for Pediatric Cancer

Cancers, Vol. 11, Pages 1396: Dendritic Cell-Based and Other Vaccination Strategies for Pediatric Cancer Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers11091396 Authors: Sévérine de Bruijn Sébastien Anguille Joris Verlooy Evelien L. Smits Viggo F. van Tendeloo Maxime de Laere Koenraad Norga Zwi N. Berneman Eva Lion Dendritic cell-based and other vaccination strategies that use the patient’s own immune system for the treatment of cancer are gaining momentum. Most studies of therapeutic cancer vaccination have been performed in adults. However, since cancer is one of the leading causes of death among children past infancy in the Western world, the hope is that this form of active specific immunotherapy can play an important role in the pediatric population as well. Since children have more vigorous and adaptable immune systems than adults, therapeutic cancer vaccines are expected to have a better chance of creating protective immunity and preventing cancer recurrence in pediatric patients. Moreover, in contrast to conventional cancer treatments such as chemotherapy, therapeutic cancer vaccines are designed to specifically target tumor cells and not healthy cells or tissues. This reduces the likelihood of side effects, which is an important asset in this vulnerable patient population. In this review, we present an overview of the different therapeutic cancer vaccines that have been studied in the pediatric population, with a main focus on dend...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research

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ConclusionsTaxanes were the most common tx choice for 1L mTNBC. Patient characteristics were similar among patients who received pac and nab-pac monotherapy, suggesting that they are prescribed interchangeably when reimbursed by insurance.Editorial acknowledgementMedical writing assistance for this abstract was provided by Chris Lum, PhD, of Health Interactions, and funded by F. Hoffmann-La Roche, Ltd.Legal entity responsible for the studyF. Hoffmann-La Roche, Ltd.FundingF. Hoffmann-La Roche, Ltd.DisclosureJ. O ’Shaughnessy: Honoraria (self): AbbVie Inc.; Honoraria (self): Agendia; Honoraria (self): Amgen Biotechnolo...
Source: Annals of Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
ConclusionsDevelopment of PD-1 B-cell vaccine was successful, showing no evidence of toxicity or autoimmunity in mice, rabbits and beagle dogs. The combination vaccines could provide improved outcomes in early stage disease sparing patients the toxicity of chemotherapy. A phase 1 clinical trial with the PD-1 vaccine is under planning.Legal entity responsible for the studyThe authors.FundingNIH; Imugene.DisclosureAll authors have declared no conflicts of interest.
Source: Annals of Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
AbstractPancreatic cancer has been termed a ‘recalcitrant cancer’ due to its relative resistance to chemotherapy and immunotherapy. This resistance is thought to be due in part to the dense fibrotic tumor microenvironment and lack of tumor infiltrating CD8 + T cells. The gastrointestinal peptide, gastrin, has been shown to stimulate g rowth of pancreatic cancer by both a paracrine and autocrine mechanism. Interruption of gastrin at the CCK receptor may reduce tumor-associated fibrosis and alter tumor immune cells. Polyclonal Ab Stimulator (PAS) is a vaccine that targets gastrin and has been shown ...
Source: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common cancer in men, and the second leading cause of cancer related death in men in Western countries. The standard therapy for metastatic PCa is androgen suppression therapy (AST). Men undergoing AST eventually develop metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC), of which there are limited treatment options available. Immunotherapy has presented substantial benefits for many types of cancer, but only a marginal benefit for mCRPC, at least in part, due to the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME). Current clinical trials are investigating monotherapies or combination ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Authors: Tse J, Singla N, Ghandour R, Lotan Y, Margulis V Abstract Introduction: The current first line therapy for high grade (HG) non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). Patients who recur or progress despite BCG are recommended to undergo radical cystectomy or participate in clinical trials. There is an urgent need for alternative therapies in the BCG-unresponsive NMIBC realm. Areas covered: We queried clinicaltrials.gov and pubmed.gov for current and recently completed early clinical trials pertaining to investigational agents used for the treatment of BCG-unre...
Source: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Investig Drugs Source Type: research
Abstract CD40 is a cell-surface member of the TNF (tumor necrosis factor) receptor superfamily. Upon activation, CD40 can license dendritic cells to promote antitumor T cell activation and re-educate macrophages to destroy tumor stroma. Numerous agonist CD40 antibodies of varying formulations have been evaluated in the clinic and found to be tolerable and feasible. Administration is associated with mild to moderate (but transient) cytokine release syndrome, readily managed in the outpatient setting. Antitumor activity with or without anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy has been observed in patients with m...
Source: Annual Review of Medicine - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Annu Rev Med Source Type: research
Cytotoxic chemotherapeutics (CCTs) are widely used in the treatment of cancer. Although their mechanisms of action have been best understood in terms of targeting the apparatus of mitosis, an ability to stimulate anti-tumor immune responses is increasing the recognition of these agents as immunotherapies. Immune checkpoint blockade antibodies neutralize important, but specific, immune-regulatory interactions such PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA-4 to improve the anti-tumor immune response. However, CCTs can provide a broad-acting immune-stimulus against cancer, promoting both T-cell priming and recruitment to the tumor, which complimen...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
AbstractFor many decades, cancer treatment has been strongly directed toward the development of cytotoxic and cytostatic drugs, quite often leading to disappointing results due to the inter- and intra-tumoral heterogeneity. Lately, this intra-cellular look has given way to the understanding of the tumor microenvironment, thus enabling modification of the immunological dynamics between tumor cells and their host. An era of new drugs aiming to unlock the host immune system against tumor cells is steadily increasing. Strategies involving adoptive cell therapy, therapeutic vaccines, immune checkpoint inhibitors and so on have ...
Source: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
ConclusionIFN-I induces STAT3 activation to activateGzmb expression to enhance CTL effector function to suppress tumor development. Human colorectal carcinoma may use down-regulation of IFNAR1 on CTLs to suppress CTL effector function to evade host cancer immunosurveillance.
Source: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 June 2019Source: Personalized Medicine UniverseAuthor(s): Ayaka Nakamura, Minako Abe, Yasuha Ono, Yukie Saeki, Fumika Kono, Hazuki Sakuma, Ayumi Morokuma, Yoshimori Ishihara, Hiroyuki AbeAbstractThe global incidence and mortality rates of colorectal cancer is rising, and has surpassed lung cancer as the highest incidence of all types of cancers in Japan [1]. Standard treatments include surgery and chemotherapy, however immunotherapy using Dendritic Cell (DC) vaccines is also recognized as an effective treatment for many cancers including colorectal cancer. DCs are the most potent antig...
Source: Personalized Medicine Universe - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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