Viral Inhibitory Activity of CD8+ T Cells in HIV Infection.

Viral Inhibitory Activity of CD8+ T Cells in HIV Infection. AIDS Rev. 2019;21(3):115-125 Authors: Pannus P, Vanham G Abstract Cytotoxic T lymphocytes, or CD8+ T cells, play an important role in the control of replication of HIV. Inducing effective and durable HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses are, therefore, a major objective in prophylactic and curative strategies for HIV infection. To evaluate such strategies, reliable immunological assays are needed that measure the capacity of CD8+ T cells to exert their effector functions and control viremia. Classical immunological assays such as interferon-γ (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunospot or intracellular cytokine staining measure the production of one or several effector molecules but do not actually show suppression of viral replication. Perhaps unsurprisingly, these assays do not correlate with either prevention of infection or lower viral set-points after infection. Therefore, more relevant assays are needed which directly measure the viral inhibitory activity (VIA) of CD8+ T cells and are more likely to predict success or failure of different immune interventions. The present review discusses the methodology of the VIA in detail as well as the practical implications of the several variations that have been described. We then go onto discuss existent literature on the relationship between VIA and HIV control, give an overview of examples where VIA has been induced or boosted in vivo or in vitro,...
Source: AIDS Reviews - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

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Had a short visit, via a circuitous A14 diversion to Grafham Water reservoir while the sun was shining, drove home in the rain. Intriguingly, there was a warning sign about not swimming and needed higher-spec buoyancy aids because the water is aerated and so, presumably, of lower, less buoyant density than normal water. Anyway, a few photos. Not of the sign. Control Tower at Grafham Water Starling in a tree Waders Boat anglers Birdlife ticked on the morning; Tufted Duck, Great Black-backed Gull, Greylag Goose, Mandarin, Shelduck, Linnet, Robin, Wren, Starling, Stonechat, Meadow Pippet, Yellowhammer, Redwing, Goldfinch, Bla...
Source: David Bradley Sciencebase - Songs, Snaps, Science - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Sciencebase Source Type: blogs
Publication date: December 2019Source: Microbial Pathogenesis, Volume 137Author(s): Faruq Abdulla, Utpal Kumar Adhikari, M. Kamal UddinAbstractTill now, AIDS, caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is still a severe health problem worldwide. It weakens the immune system by targeting the T-helper cells. Specifically, the severity of the pandemic HIV-1 makes the emergence of an enduring effective vaccine against HIV-1. Therefore, we have applied a series of immunoinformatics approaches to the four conserved domains of HIV-1 integrase (IN) proteins to design an effective multi-epitope based subunit vaccine which mig...
Source: Microbial Pathogenesis - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
This study searched for HTLV-1/2 antibodies in plasma samples of 625 HIV/AIDS patients from the municipality of Tubarao (Southern Santa Catarina), and disclosed 1.1% of positivity (0.48% HTLV-1, 0.48% HTLV-2 and 0.16% untypeable HTLV), and a positive correlation with the male sex (OR 4.16) and intravenous drug use (OR 35.18). Although the percentage of 1.1% appears to be low, it is 27.5 times higher than the percentage detected in blood donors. Since HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 are circulating in HIV-infected individuals in Southern Santa Catarina, and these retroviruses could cause a differently impact on the HIV/AIDS outcomes, the...
Source: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de Sao Paulo - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Tags: Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The great diversity of motives illustrates the importance of offering a choice of PrEP-regimens. In counselling of MSM starting PrEP, choices for PrEP-regimens may be addressed as a continuum of flexible and changeable options over time. This may help individuals choose the PrEP-regimen that best fits their current sexual context, priorities and personal capabilities and therefore will be more easily adhered to. PMID: 31612621 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research
Source: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: HIV/AIDS - Research and Palliative Care Source Type: research
Authors: Snopkova S, Matyskova M, Havlickova K, Jarkovsky J, Svoboda M, Zavrelova J, Svacinka R, Penka M, Husa P Abstract OBJECTIVES: HIV-infected individuals are at higher risk of non-AIDS diseases associated with procoagulant status. Microparticles are elevated in disorders associated with thrombosis (e.g., cardiovascular diseases). We investigated the association between microparticle levels in untreated and treated HIV-infected subjects, and determined the association with immune status, viral replication, and duration of antiretroviral therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We included 144 HIV-infected subjects, i...
Source: Medecine et Maladies Infectieuses - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Med Mal Infect Source Type: research
ConclusionsA high prevalence ofBlastocystis infection was found in HIV/AIDS patients in Tengchong. Poor hygienic habits, the interaction of HIV virus load and CD4+ T cell count were identified as main risk factors for infection. These results will help us to develop efficient control strategies to intervene with and prevent the occurrence ofBlastocystis among HIV-infected individuals.
Source: Infectious Diseases of Poverty - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Conclusion: We found that the simplified regimen was noninferior to TT regimen in regard to viral suppression. Furthermore, the simplified DT regimen had a better CD4 cell count and lower adverse events than the TT regimen.
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Source: AIDS Care - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractTransactional sex (TS) has been shown to contribute to the HIV epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. Previous research has yet to identify psychosocial factors that make young women vulnerable to engaging in TS. This analysis examined the association between self-esteem and TS among young women in rural South Africa. A post hoc analysis of post-intervention survey data from HPTN 068 was conducted. Log-binomial regression was used to compute a prevalence ratio measure of association. Among 1942 young women, the prevalence of TS among those with lower self-esteem was 4.7 times the prevalence of TS among those with higher s...
Source: AIDS and Behavior - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
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