Associations between clinical canine leishmaniosis and multiple vector-borne co-infections: a case-control serological study

Dogs that have clinical leishmaniosis (ClinL), caused by the parasite Leishmania infantum, are commonly co-infected with other pathogens, especially vector-borne pathogens (VBP). A recent PCR-based study found th...
Source: BMC Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 17 October 2019Source: Journal of Microbiological MethodsAuthor(s): Aline C. da Silva Santos, Danielle M.N. Moura, Thiago A.R. dos Santos, Osvaldo P. de Melo Neto, Valéria R.A. PereiraAbstractLeishmaniasis, caused by protozoa belonging to the genus Leishmania, is an important public health problem found in>90 countries and with still limited options for treatment. Development of new anti-leishmanial drugs is an urgent need and the identification of new active compounds is a limiting factor that can be accelerated through large scale drug screening. This requires multiple steps a...
Source: Journal of Microbiological Methods - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is characterized by vascular remodeling. Following infection with Leishmania parasites, the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A)/VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) signaling pathway mediates lymphangiogenesis, which is critical for lesion resolution. Therefore, we investigated the cellular and molecular mediators involved in VEGF-A/VEGFR-2 signaling using a murine model of infection. We found that macrophages are the predominant cell type expressing VEGF-A during Leishmania major infection. Given that Leishmania parasites activate hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and this transcripti...
Source: Infection and Immunity - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Fungal and Parasitic Infections Source Type: research
by Barrack O. Owino, Damaris Matoke-Muhia, Yasser Alraey, Jackline Milkah Mwangi, Johnstone M. Ingonga, Philip M. Ngumbi, Aitor Casas-Sanchez, Alvaro Acosta-Serrano, Daniel K. Masiga BackgroundPhlebotomus (Larroussius) guggisbergi is among the confirmed vectors for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) transmission in Kenya. This scarring and stigmatizing form of leishmaniasis accounts for over one million annual cases worldwide. Most recent CL epidemics in Kenya have been reported in Gilgil, Nakuru County, where the disease has become a public health issue. However, little is known about the factors that drive its transmission. He...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
In this study, dependency of antibody production in Leishmania infection on BAFF was examined by using BAFF-knockout (BAFF-KO) mice. When BAFF-KO mice were infected with L. major, there was no significant difference in lesion development or parasite burden from those in infected wildtype mice. In contrast, levels of IgG antibodies to Leishmania crude antigen were lower in BAFF-KO mice, suggesting that antibody production during L. major infection is BAFF-dependent. ELISA using defined leishmanial antigens demonstrated that the influence of BAFF on antibody production during L. major varies depending on antigens; IgG produc...
Source: Parasitology International - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of conventional smear cytology (SC), liquid-based cytology (LBC), cell block (CB) stained with haematoxylin and eosin (HE) and immunocytochemistry (ICC), and formalin-fixed paraffin wax-embedded tissue immunohistochemistry (FFPE–IHC) compared with serology and polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniosis (CVL) in lymphoid tissue. The use of a preservative medium and centrifugation for cytological samples reduced the number of unsatisfactory artefacts/background. Moreover, LBC allowed excellent cellular preservation and the application of ancill...
Source: Journal of Comparative Pathology - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
The liver plays a central role in the development of canine visceral leishmaniasis. Studies of natural infection in animals and humans indicate a direct relationship between resolution of infection and the for...
Source: Parasites and Vectors - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: Obligate intracellular parasites of Leishmania genus belong to family Trypanosomatidae and more than twenty species causes this neglected vector-borne infection throughout the globe. The current study was aimed to assess the antileishmanial activity of Amphotericin B (AmB) and AmB formulated into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) in vitro and in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present research, microemulsification and high shear homogenization methods were used to prepare SLNs. Leishmania major (L. major) promastigotes were cultured in RPMI 1640 and incubated for three time points of 2...
Source: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Infect Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research
The early inflammatory skin micromilieu affects resistance in experimental infection with Leishmania major. We pursue the concept that macrophages, which take up parasites during early infection, exert decisive influence on the inflammatory micromilieu after infection. In order to analyze their distinctive potential, we identified differentially regulated genes of murine granuloma macrophages (GMΦ) from resistant and susceptible mice after their infection with metacyclic Leishmania major. We found induction of several cytokines in GMΦ from both strains and a stronger upregulation of the transcription factor aryl hy...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Abstract Mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) therapy are among new strategies that are used to combat infections through immunomodulation. Cell number, route and frequency of injection and the duration of exposure to the infectious agent are of the main factors to determine the effectiveness of cell therapy. The current study was aimed to assess the effect of multiple intravenous (i.v.) injection of adipose tissue derived (AD)-MSCs on immune response of Leishmania (L.) major-infected BALB/c mice. Therefore, infected mice received AD-MSCs four times during the early phase of infection through i.v. route. They were then mo...
Source: Immunology Letters - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Immunol Lett Source Type: research
Trypanosomatids of the genus Leishmania are parasites of mammals or reptiles transmitted by bloodsucking dipterans. Many species of these flagellates cause important human diseases with clinical symptoms ranging ...
Source: BMC Genomics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
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