Leishmania Spp-Host Interaction: There Is Always an Onset, but Is There an End?

For a long time Leishmaniasis had been considered as a neglected tropical disease. Recently, it has become a priority in public health all over the world for different aspects such as geographic spread, number of population living at risk of infection as well as the potential lethality and/or the development of disfiguring lesions in the, respectively, visceral and tegumentary forms of the disease. As a result, several groups have been bending over this issue and many valuable data have been published. Nevertheless, parasite-host interactions are still not fully known and, consequently, we do not entirely understand the infection dynamics and parasite persistence. This knowledge may point targets for modulation or blockage, being very useful in the development of measures to interfere in the course of infection/ disease and to minimize the risks and morbidity. In the present review we will discuss some aspects of the Leishmania spp—mammalian host interaction in the onset of infection and after the clinical cure of the lesions. We will also examine the information already available concerning the parasite strategy to evade immune response mainly at the beginning of the infection, as well as during the parasite persistence. This knowledge can improve the conditions of treatment, follow-up and cure control of patients, minimizing the potential damages this protozoosis can cause to infected individuals.
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 17 October 2019Source: Journal of Microbiological MethodsAuthor(s): Aline C. da Silva Santos, Danielle M.N. Moura, Thiago A.R. dos Santos, Osvaldo P. de Melo Neto, Valéria R.A. PereiraAbstractLeishmaniasis, caused by protozoa belonging to the genus Leishmania, is an important public health problem found in>90 countries and with still limited options for treatment. Development of new anti-leishmanial drugs is an urgent need and the identification of new active compounds is a limiting factor that can be accelerated through large scale drug screening. This requires multiple steps a...
Source: Journal of Microbiological Methods - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Cutaneous leishmaniasis is characterized by vascular remodeling. Following infection with Leishmania parasites, the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A)/VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) signaling pathway mediates lymphangiogenesis, which is critical for lesion resolution. Therefore, we investigated the cellular and molecular mediators involved in VEGF-A/VEGFR-2 signaling using a murine model of infection. We found that macrophages are the predominant cell type expressing VEGF-A during Leishmania major infection. Given that Leishmania parasites activate hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) and this transcripti...
Source: Infection and Immunity - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Fungal and Parasitic Infections Source Type: research
by Barrack O. Owino, Damaris Matoke-Muhia, Yasser Alraey, Jackline Milkah Mwangi, Johnstone M. Ingonga, Philip M. Ngumbi, Aitor Casas-Sanchez, Alvaro Acosta-Serrano, Daniel K. Masiga BackgroundPhlebotomus (Larroussius) guggisbergi is among the confirmed vectors for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) transmission in Kenya. This scarring and stigmatizing form of leishmaniasis accounts for over one million annual cases worldwide. Most recent CL epidemics in Kenya have been reported in Gilgil, Nakuru County, where the disease has become a public health issue. However, little is known about the factors that drive its transmission. He...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
This study was carried out at two collecting sites located in a Brazilian town with a high prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of adding two kinds of commercial bait which mimic human odors to light traps to attract sand flies and compare the results with those of light traps without any additional bait. The commercial baits, BG-Lure® and BG-Sweetscent®, were developed to catch anthropophilic mosquitoes. Three treatments were evaluated: 1 - HP light trap with BG-Lure® added; 2 - HP light trap with BG-Sweetscent® added and 3- HP light trap without an...
Source: Acta Tropica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research
Abstract Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the most severe form of the disease, is caused by Leishmania donovani in the Indian sub-continent (ISC). Whole genome sequencing studies revealed that two parasite populations exist in the ISC: a main population named the Core Group (CG) found mostly in the lowlands, and a new, genetically different subpopulation called ISC1. Parasites belonging to the CG were shown to be responsible for the recent epidemics, while the ISC1 variant was originally identified in hilly districts of Nepal and was later on increasingly found in the lowlands. Importantly, the ISC1 and CG isolates di...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Infect Genet Evol Source Type: research
In this study, dependency of antibody production in Leishmania infection on BAFF was examined by using BAFF-knockout (BAFF-KO) mice. When BAFF-KO mice were infected with L. major, there was no significant difference in lesion development or parasite burden from those in infected wildtype mice. In contrast, levels of IgG antibodies to Leishmania crude antigen were lower in BAFF-KO mice, suggesting that antibody production during L. major infection is BAFF-dependent. ELISA using defined leishmanial antigens demonstrated that the influence of BAFF on antibody production during L. major varies depending on antigens; IgG produc...
Source: Parasitology International - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of conventional smear cytology (SC), liquid-based cytology (LBC), cell block (CB) stained with haematoxylin and eosin (HE) and immunocytochemistry (ICC), and formalin-fixed paraffin wax-embedded tissue immunohistochemistry (FFPE–IHC) compared with serology and polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniosis (CVL) in lymphoid tissue. The use of a preservative medium and centrifugation for cytological samples reduced the number of unsatisfactory artefacts/background. Moreover, LBC allowed excellent cellular preservation and the application of ancill...
Source: Journal of Comparative Pathology - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
The liver plays a central role in the development of canine visceral leishmaniasis. Studies of natural infection in animals and humans indicate a direct relationship between resolution of infection and the for...
Source: Parasites and Vectors - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: Obligate intracellular parasites of Leishmania genus belong to family Trypanosomatidae and more than twenty species causes this neglected vector-borne infection throughout the globe. The current study was aimed to assess the antileishmanial activity of Amphotericin B (AmB) and AmB formulated into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) in vitro and in vivo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the present research, microemulsification and high shear homogenization methods were used to prepare SLNs. Leishmania major (L. major) promastigotes were cultured in RPMI 1640 and incubated for three time points of 2...
Source: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Infect Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research
The early inflammatory skin micromilieu affects resistance in experimental infection with Leishmania major. We pursue the concept that macrophages, which take up parasites during early infection, exert decisive influence on the inflammatory micromilieu after infection. In order to analyze their distinctive potential, we identified differentially regulated genes of murine granuloma macrophages (GMΦ) from resistant and susceptible mice after their infection with metacyclic Leishmania major. We found induction of several cytokines in GMΦ from both strains and a stronger upregulation of the transcription factor aryl hy...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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