Population prevalence of individuals meeting criteria for hereditary breast and ovarian cancer testing

ConclusionsThis study quantifies the population ‐based prevalence of HBOC criteria using objectively determined genealogy and cancer incidence data. Sporadic breast cancer likely represents a portion of the high prevalence of family cancer history seen in this study. These results underline the importance of establishing presence of a deleterio us mutation in an affected family member, per NCCN guidelines, before testing unaffected relatives.
Source: Cancer Medicine - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research

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AbstractBackgroundPoly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) play a key role in DNA damage repair (DDR). DDR defects due to HRRm (eg BRCA mutation [BRCAm]) or resulting in HRD (eg global loss of heterozygosity) may sensitize tumors to PARP inhibitors, eg olaparib. Olaparib monotherapy has activity in BRCAm ovarian, breast, pancreatic, and prostate cancer, and in prostate cancer with DDR defects beyond BRCAm (TOPARP). Olaparib improved efficacy outcomes vs placebo/chemotherapy as treatment in  ≤ 3rd-line (3L) HER2-negative BRCAm breast cancer (OlympiAD) and ≥2L BRCAm ovarian cancer (SOLO3), and maintenance the...
Source: Annals of Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
This study compared the association between insurance coverage at diagnosis and cancer-specific mortality (CSM; insurance sensitivity) in 6 cancers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using the SEER cancer registry, data were abstracted for individuals diagnosed with ovarian, pancreatic, lung, colorectal, prostate, or breast cancer in 2007 through 2010. The association between insurance coverage at diagnosis and CSM was modeled using a Fine and Gray competing-risks regression adjusted for demographics. An interaction term combining insurance status and cancer type was used to test whether insurance sensitivity differed between canc...
Source: Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Natl Compr Canc Netw Source Type: research
Studies have identified that the polymorphism rs10069690 of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) is associated with cancer risk, but the results remain inconclusive. We performed a meta ‐analysis of 45 published studies including 329,035 cases and 730,940 controls. This meta‐analysis suggested that the TERT rs10069690 polymorphism may be a risk factor for cancer, especially breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and lung cancer. Further functional studies are warranted to reveal the ro le of the polymorphism in carcinogenesis. AbstractBackgroundStudies have identified that the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene po...
Source: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
Pathogenic variants (ie, mutations) in the breast cancer susceptibility 1 and 2 (BRCA1/2) genes are associated with a high risk of ovarian and female breast cancer as well as, particularly for BRCA2, elevated risks of male breast cancer, aggressive prostate cancer, and pancreatic cancer. The risks of ovarian cancer and breast cancer are as high as 45% and 70%, respectively. The detection of a BRCA1/2 pathogenic variant can significantly alter medical management (by early detection or risk reduction strategies) and improve outcomes.
Source: JAMA - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
(University of Alberta Faculty of Medicine&Dentistry) New research that uncovers the mechanism behind the newest generation of cancer drugs is opening the door for better targeted therapy. PARP inhibitors are molecular targeted cancer drugs used to treat women with ovarian cancer who have the BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene mutations. The drugs are showing promise in late-stage clinical trials for breast cancer, prostate cancer and pancreatic cancer.
Source: EurekAlert! - Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: news
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) has been demonstrated to exert anti-proliferative effects on various tumour cells in ovarian, endometrial, bladder, and prostate cancer as a part of the autocrine system. In addition, the expression of GnRH and its receptor has been identified in breast cancer and non-reproductive cancers, such as pancreatic cancer and glioblastoma. Previous studies have reported abnormal GnRH expression in several malignant tumours, suggesting that GnRH and its receptor might be essential for tumourigenesis. In the present study, we attempted to clarify the mechanisms underlying GnRH function in cell ...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
ConclusionOver the last decades, age-standardised cancer mortality in the elderly has been decreasing in major countries worldwide and for major cancer sites, with the major exception of lung and uterine cancer in women and liver, pancreatic and kidney cancers in both sexes. Cancer mortality for the elderly in central and eastern Europe remains comparatively high.
Source: Annals of Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In this study, we reviewed major human studies on the health risks of radiation exposure and showed that sex-related factors may potentially influence the long-term response to radiation exposure. Available data suggest that long-term radiosensitivity in women is higher than that in men who receive a comparable dose of radiation. The report on the biological effects of ionizing radiation (BEIR VII) published in 2006 by the National Academy of Sciences, United States emphasized that women may be at significantly greater risk of suffering and dying from radiation-induced cancer than men exposed to the same dose of radiation....
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
This study is an important step forward in highlighting C1q as a new prognostic candidate biomarker for a range of carcinomas. Methods Oncomine Database Analysis The expression levels of C1QA, C1QB, and C1QC genes in various carcinomas were analyzed using Oncomine (www.oncomine.org), a cancer microarray database and web-based data mining platform from genome-wide expression analyses (22, 23). We compared the differences in mRNA level between normal tissue and carcinoma. The mRNA expression levels in neoplastic tissues compared to the healthy tissues were obtained as the parameters of p-value 2, and gene ranking in the t...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
In this study, an animal model with a single BmPer gene product was selected to investigate the effect of Per-KD on the cell cycle and avoid the interaction of multiple Per expression products. There have been no previous reports of cell cycle changes after simultaneous knockdown or knockout of all mPer genes. A slow growing developmental model expressing a single BmPer gene that was continually knocked down in BmN cells (Per-KD) was used in this study. The BmN cells were free of endocrine influences. We compared cell proliferation and programmed cell death (PCD) and investigated the regulatory mechanisms in mutant and wil...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
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