Treatment May Be Harmful: Mechanisms/Prediction/Prevention of Drug-Induced DNA Damage and Repair in Multiple Myeloma

Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy characterized by accumulation of malignant plasma cells within the bone marrow (BM). MM is considered mostly without definitive treatment because of the inability of standard of care therapies to overcome drug-resistant relapse. Genotoxic agents are used in the treatment of MM and exploit the fact that DNA double-strand breaks are highly cytotoxic for cancer cells. However, their mutagenic effects are well-established and described. According to these effects, chemotherapy could cause harmful DNA damage associated with new driver genomic abnormalities providing selective advantage, drug resistance, and higher relapse risk. Several mechanisms associated with MM cell (MMC) resistance to genotoxic agents have been described, underlining MM heterogeneity. The understanding of these mechanisms provides several therapeutic strategies to overcome drug resistance and limit mutagenic effects of treatment in MM. According to this heterogeneity, adopting precision medicine into clinical practice, with the development of biomarkers, has the potential to improve MM disease management and treatment.
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research

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Antonio Lucena-Cacace1, Masayuki Umeda1, Lola E. Navas2,3 and Amancio Carnero2,3* 1Department of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Center for iPS Cell Research and Application, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan 2CIBERONC, ISCIII, Madrid, Spain 3Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla (IBIS), Hospital Universitario Virgen del Rocío (HUVR), CSIC, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, Spain Glioma Cancer Stem-Like Cells (GSCs) are a small subset of CD133+ cells with self-renewal properties and capable of initiating new tumors contributing to Glioma progression, maintenance, hierarchy, and complexity. GSCs are highly res...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Discussion In this section, we discuss the mechanisms responsible for lymphomagenesis in the various inborn errors of immunity and provide an overview of the treatment. Defects in Immune Responses That Predispose to Lymphomagenesis in PIDDs The complex immune mechanisms and their interplay that predisposes to neoplastic transformation of B or T cells and development of lymphomas in PIDD patients has not been fully elucidated. However, it is expected that the etiology in most cases is multifactorial and related to a dynamic regulation of immune response and environmental triggers (Figure 3). An underlying intrinsic susce...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
This study was supported by the Shanghai Sailing Program [grant number 17YF1425200, 2017]; Chinese National Natural Science Funding [grant number 81702249, 2017]; Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality [grant number 17511103403, 2017]; The funder has no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Acknowledgments We acknowledge the ex...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Genetic alterations of epigenetic regulators that alter the repressive trimethylation of lysine 27 on histone H3 (H3K27me3) are a recurrent feature in cancer. The histone demethylase UTX/KDM6A Is mutated in ~5% of multiple myeloma (MM) at diagnosis and is commonly absent in MM cell lines, derived from patients with advanced disease. KDM6A forms a complex containing H3K4 specific methyltransferases KMT2D and KMT2C, the histone acetyltransferase CBP/p300 and SWI/SNF chromatin-remodelers. Collectively the complex adds activation marks on histones and removes the gene repression associated H3K37me mark at enhancers. Removal of...
Source: Blood - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: Targeting Epigenetic Regulation in Myeloma Source Type: research
CONCLUSION Cognitive impairment can affect daily functioning, quality of life, and capacity to work in patients with cancer and those in remission. Consequently, cognitive assessment is now an important and necessary part of a comprehensive oncological care plan. Cancer-related cognitive impairment might be due to the direct effects of the cancer itself, nonspecific factors, or comorbid conditions that are independent of the disease and/or due to the adverse effects of the treatment or combination of treatments given for the disease. The prevalence and extent of cognitive impairment associated with cancer is recognized but...
Source: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Cognition Current Issue Neuro oncology Neurology Review cancer chemotherapy cognitive impairment neuropsychological assessment treatment Source Type: research
In January, 2018, Academic Press published my bookPrecision Medicine and the Reinvention of Human Disease. This book has an excellent " look inside " at itsGoogle book site, which includes the Table of Contents. In addition, I thought it might be helpful to see the topics listed in the Book's index. Note that page numbers followed by f indicate figures, t indicate tables, and ge indicate glossary terms.AAbandonware, 270, 310geAb initio, 34, 48ge, 108geABL (abelson leukemia) gene, 28, 58ge, 95 –97Absidia corymbifera, 218Acanthameoba, 213Acanthosis nigricans, 144geAchondroplasia, 74, 143ge, 354geAcne, 54ge, 1...
Source: Specified Life - Category: Information Technology Tags: index jules berman jules j berman precision medicine Source Type: blogs
Abstract Multiple myeloma cells acquire the resistance to anti-cancer drugs through physical and functional interactions with the bone marrow microenvironment via two overlapping mechanisms. First, bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) produce soluble factors, such as interleukin-6 and insulin-like growth factor-1, to activate signal transduction pathways leading to drug resistance (soluble factor-mediated drug resistance). Second, BMSCs up-regulate the expression of cell cycle inhibitors, anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family and ABC drug transporters in myeloma cells upon direct adhesion [cell adhesion-mediated...
Source: International Journal of Hematology - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: Int J Hematol Source Type: research
Please wait while the activity loads. If this activity does not load, try refreshing your browser. Also, this page requires javascript. Please visit using a browser with javascript enabled. If loading fails, click here to try again Click on the 'Start' button to begin the mock test. After answering all questions, click on the 'Get Results' button to display your score and the explanations. There is no time limit for this mock test. Start Congratulations - you have completed DM / DNB Cardiology Entrance Mock Test 4. You scored %%SCORE%% out of %%TOTAL%%. Your performance has been rate...
Source: Cardiophile MD - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Cardiology MCQ DM / DNB Cardiology Entrance Featured Source Type: blogs
Authors: Salehan MR, Morse HR Abstract A significant barrier to effective cancer therapy is the development of resistance to the drugs utilised. Standard chemotherapeutic regimens typically contain genotoxic agents, designed to damage DNA of existing tumour cells as well as prevent the synthesis of new DNA during proliferation. DNA damage in normal cells can be repaired efficiently or tolerated to preserve cellular and organ functionality. The mechanisms of DNA repair and tolerance are distinct for different types of lesion, but can be predicted if the mechanism of interaction of the drug with the DNA is known. The...
Source: British Journal of Biomedical Science - Category: Laboratory Medicine Tags: Br J Biomed Sci Source Type: research
DNA interstrand cross-linking (ICL) agents have an important impact in cancer treatment. However, the precise mechanisms contributing to differential response of patients to chemotherapy with these drugs are poorly understood.
Source: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma and Leukemia - Category: Hematology Authors: Source Type: research
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