Insulin Resistance in Brain and Possible Therapeutic Approaches.

Insulin Resistance in Brain and Possible Therapeutic Approaches. Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2013 Apr 25; Authors: Cetinkalp S, Simsir IY, Ertek S Abstract Although the brain has long been considered an insulin-independent organ, recent research has shown that insulin has significant effects on the brain, where it plays a role in maintaining glucose and energy homeostasis. To avoid peripheral insulin resistance, the brain may act via hypoinsulinemic responses, maintaining glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity within its own confines; however, brain insulin resistance may develop due to environmental factors. Insulin has two important functions in the brain: controlling food intake and regulating cognitive functions, particularly memory. Notably, defects in insulin signaling in the brain may contribute to neurodegenerative disorders. Insulin resistance may damage the cognitive system and lead to dementia states. Furthermore, inflammatory processes in the hypothalamus, where insulin receptors are expressed at high density, impair local signaling systems and cause glucose and energy metabolism disorders. Excessive caloric intake and high-fat diets initiate insulin and leptin resistance by inducing mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum stress in the hypothalamus. This may lead to obesity and diabetes mellitus (DM). Exercise can enhance brain and hypothalamic insulin sensitivity, but it is the option least preferred and/or continuously practiced by the...
Source: Current Vascular Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Vasc Pharmacol Source Type: research

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Abstract Mild to moderate cognitive decrements are a well-known phenomenon associated with diabetes mellitus. In this review, we provide an overview of the cognitive consequences of type 1 and type 2 diabetes based on hallmark studies that follow patients over an extended period of time. In patients with type 1 diabetes, cognitive dysfunction appears soon after diagnosis and can be found in individuals of any age. The magnitude of these effects is generally modest, although their severity is especially pronounced in those with early onset type 1 diabetes (diagnosis before 7 years of age) or those who have develo...
Source: Neurobiology of Disease - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Neurobiol Dis Source Type: research
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Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
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Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Molecular Basis of Disease - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
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Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
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Source: Metabolic Brain Disease - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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Source: The Case Files - Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Blog Posts Source Type: research
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Source: Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism - Category: Nutrition Source Type: research
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Source: The Journal of Alzheimers Association - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimers Dement Source Type: research
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Source: Alzheimer's and Dementia: The Journal of the Alzheimer's Association - Category: Geriatrics Source Type: research
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