Vaccine approaches for the 'therapeutic management' of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in domestic livestock.

Vaccine approaches for the 'therapeutic management' of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis infection in domestic livestock. Vet Q. 2019 Sep 16;:1-18 Authors: Gupta S, Singh SV, Singh M, Chaubey KK, Karthik K, Bhatia AK, Kumar N, Dhama K Abstract High endemicity of Johne's disease (JD) in herds adversely affects heavy milk yielding breeds by reducing the per animal productivity and 'productive life-span'.This review evaluates different vaccines used for its control and summarizes the benefits of 'global vaccine' in the four major domestic livestock species, namely goat, sheep, buffalo and cattle. Vaccines developed by using 'native strains' revealed both 'therapeutic' and preventive effects in domestic livestock. The 'therapeutic' role of vaccine in animals suffering from clinical JD turned out to be valuable in some cases by reversing the disease process and animals returning back to health and production. Good herd management, improved hygiene, 'test and cull' methodology, disposal of animal excreta and monitoring of MAP bio-load were also regarded as crucial in the 'therapeutic' management of JD. Vaccine approaches have been widely adopted in JD control programs and may be considered as a valuable adjunct in order to utilize huge populations of otherwise un-productive livestock. It has been shown that vaccination was the preeminent strategy to control JD, because it yielded approximately 3-4 times better benefit-to-cost ratios than other str...
Source: Veterinary Quarterly - Category: Veterinary Research Tags: Vet Q Source Type: research

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Conclusions: Health-seeking behavior and compliance to complete course of anti-rabies vaccination is unsatisfactory, which has to be improved to prevent rabies.
Source: Indian Journal of Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Authors: Source Type: research
by Yidan Li, Bernard Cazelles, Guoqing Yang, Marko Laine, Zheng X. Y. Huang, Jun Cai, Hua Tan, Nils Chr. Stenseth, Huaiyu Tian Seoul hantavirus (SEOV) has recently raised concern by causing geographic range expansion of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). SEOV infections in humans are significantly underestimated worldwide and epidemic dynamics of SEOV-related HFRS are poorly understood because of a lack of fiel d data and empirically validated models. Here, we use mathematical models to examine both intrinsic and extrinsic drivers of disease transmission from animal (the Norway rat) to humans in a SEOV-endemic ...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
Frédérique Le Potier Maria Montoya Animal diseases constitute a continuing threat to animal health, food safety, national economy, and the environment. Among those, African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most devastating viruses affecting pigs and wild suids due to the lack of vaccine or effective treatment. ASF is endemic in countries in sub-Saharan Africa, but since its introduction to the Caucasus region in 2007, a highly virulent strain of ASF virus (ASFV) has continued to circulate and spread into Eastern Europe and Russia, and most recently into Western Europe, China, and various countries of Sou...
Source: Viruses - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
ra DF Abstract Dengue, considered the most important arthropod-borne viral disease affecting humans, is transmitted by the bite of mosquitoes of the genus Aedes and caused by one of the four distinct serotypes of dengue virus (DENV-1, -2, -3 and -4). Infection with one of the four serotypes provides lifelong homotypic immunity. However, immunity against the heterologous serotypes is transient. As a consequence, secondary infection may lead to severer manifestations due to cross-reactivity of antibodies and T-cells. Over 500,000 people are hospitalized every year and around 2,5 million, living in endemic areas, are...
Source: Acta Virologica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Virol Source Type: research
Melioidosis is a tropical disease that claims an estimated 90,000 lives worldwide each year. There is no vaccine, and current treatments are hampered by the ability of the bacterium that causes the disease to resist even the strongest antibiotics.Hardy and lethal, that bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei, is classified by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as a potential bioweapon.UCLA-led research has identified two compounds that, based on tests on human cells and on mice, show potential for treating melioidosis. One is a widely used drug already approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as an antifu...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
In this study, we first screened a library of 386 natural products and found that xanthohumol (Xn), a prenylated flavonoid found in hops, displayed high anti-PRRSV activity by inhibiting PRRSV adsorption onto and internalization into cells. Transcriptome sequencing revealed that Xn treatment stimulates genes associated with the antioxidant response in the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signalling pathway. Xn causes increased expression of Nrf2, HMOX1, GCLC, GCLM, and NQO1 in Marc-145 cells. The action of Xn against PRRSV proliferation depends on Nrf2 in Marc-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages (P...
Source: Veterinary Research - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 6 September 2019Source: Veterinary Immunology and ImmunopathologyAuthor(s): Nattinee Kittiwan, Panuwat Yamsakul, Pakpoom Tadee, Phacharaporn Tadee, Aniroot Nuangmek, Phongsakorn Chuammitri, Prapas PatchaneeAbstractPorcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS), caused by the PRRS virus (PRRSV), remains a major economic threat to swine production throughout the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the humoral and cell-mediated immune responses to PRRSV in 10 PRRSV vaccinated and 10 non-vaccinated young pigs obtained from a PRRSV-seropositive herd under field conditions. On...
Source: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: This study concludes that respondents have relatively limited knowledge, inconsistent attitude and poor practices towards Rabies prevention and control. There is a high need of imparting knowledge to the population from multidisciplinary programs for effective management and prevention of Rabies. PMID: 31491398 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Acta Tropica - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Acta Trop Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 25 August 2019Source: Ticks and Tick-borne DiseasesAuthor(s): Huseyin Bilgin Bilgic, Selin Hacilarlioglu, Serkan Bakirci, Onur Kose, Ahmet Hakan Unlu, Ayca Aksulu, Metin Pekagirbas, Jabbar Ahmed, Christina Deschermeier, Gordon Langley, Tulin KaragencAbstractBabesiosis is a disease complex caused by unicellular Babesia parasites and among them, malignant ovine babesiosis caused by B. ovis has a devastating economical impact on the small ruminant industry. The control of disease is mainly based on chemotherapy and preventing animals from tick infestation and to date no vaccine is available ...
Source: Ticks and Tick borne Diseases - Category: Zoology Source Type: research
In conclusion, MaF2 is a promising multi-antigen vaccine candidate against anthrax and plague that warrants further investigation.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
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