Multimode Jetting Unlocks a Trade-Off between Nanostructure Morphology and Composition in Focused Electron Beam Induced Deposition

We report on novel tunable mode of Focused Electron Beam Induced Deposition (FEBID) as enabled by the switchable use of reactive (O2) and inert (Ar) “assist” gases directed at high impingement energy and momentum to a deposition site concurrently with a supply of a precursor in a dual-nozzle FEBID arrangement. Organometallic molecules introduced into a deposition chamber in a free-molecular flow regime through a conventional gas injection nozzle, yielding a broad uniform substrate coverage by the precursor in a quasi-equilibrium adsorbed state. Simultaneously, a supersonic micro-jet from a micron-scale capillary placed in close proximity to a deposition site produces a low Knudsen number continuous flow impingement of energized “assist” gas, which perturbs the precursor state to facilitate different chemical reaction pathways. This process enables modulation of deposition outcomes, e.g., enhanced vertical growth rate (aspect ratio) of nanostructures when using argon micro-jet while locally removing parasitic carbonaceous by-products of organometallic precursor decomposition reaction by e-beam through interactions with oxygen micro-jet. Such in-situ/in operando (during growth and on-demand switchable) modulation of FEBID allows for rapid and precisely controllable deposition for a desired outcome, such as tuning metal-to-carbon composition and maintaining shape fidelity in fabricating high-aspect ratio composite nanostructures, which extends the capabil...
Source: Materials Today Communications - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research

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In this study, dependency of antibody production in Leishmania infection on BAFF was examined by using BAFF-knockout (BAFF-KO) mice. When BAFF-KO mice were infected with L. major, there was no significant difference in lesion development or parasite burden from those in infected wildtype mice. In contrast, levels of IgG antibodies to Leishmania crude antigen were lower in BAFF-KO mice, suggesting that antibody production during L. major infection is BAFF-dependent. ELISA using defined leishmanial antigens demonstrated that the influence of BAFF on antibody production during L. major varies depending on antigens; IgG produc...
Source: Parasitology International - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 October 2019Source: TrAC Trends in Analytical ChemistryAuthor(s): Sona Jain, Thyago Gois Costa Melo, Silvio Santana Dolabella, Juewen LiuAbstractWater-borne protozoan parasites like Cryptosporidium, Giardia, Entamoeba and Toxoplasma are responsible for 1.7 billion cases of diarrhea globally, representing the second most frequent reason for mortality among children under five. They show an environmentally resistant cyst/oocyst stage. Despite their importance, the standard analytical methods for their detection still rely on immunostaining followed by microscopic analysis. In recent year...
Source: TrAC Trends in Analytical Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of conventional smear cytology (SC), liquid-based cytology (LBC), cell block (CB) stained with haematoxylin and eosin (HE) and immunocytochemistry (ICC), and formalin-fixed paraffin wax-embedded tissue immunohistochemistry (FFPE–IHC) compared with serology and polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniosis (CVL) in lymphoid tissue. The use of a preservative medium and centrifugation for cytological samples reduced the number of unsatisfactory artefacts/background. Moreover, LBC allowed excellent cellular preservation and the application of ancill...
Source: Journal of Comparative Pathology - Category: Pathology Source Type: research
chmidt In the course of our investigations on the antitrypanosomal potential of sesquiterpene lactones (STL), we have recently reported on the exceptionally strong activity of 4,15-iso-Atriplicolide tiglate, which demonstrated an IC50 value of 15 nM against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, the etiologic agent responsible for East African human trypanosomiasis (HAT). Since STLs are known to often interact with their biological targets (e.g., in anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activity) by means of the covalent modification of biological nucleophiles—most prominently free cysteine thiol groups in proteins&m...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
by Angela Nalwoga, Emily L. Webb, Belinda Chihota, Wendell Miley, Bridgious Walusimbi, Jacent Nassuuna, Richard E. Sanya, Gyaviira Nkurunungi, Nazzarena Labo, Alison M. Elliott, Stephen Cose, Denise Whitby, Robert Newton We investigated the impact of helminths and malaria infection on Kaposi’s sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) seropositivity, using samples and data collected from a cluster-randomised trial of intensive versus standard anthelminthic treatment. The trial was carried out in 2012 to 2016 among f ishing communities on Lake Victoria islands in Uganda. Plasma samples from 2881 participants from two hou...
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionOur findings indicate that cryptic myiasis cases due to the obligate parasite,C.bezziana, are under-recognized. Through this study onC.bezziana etiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, epidemiology, prevention and control, we call for more vigilance and awareness of the disease from governments, health authorities, clinicians, veterinary workers, nursing homes, and also the general public.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
jandro M. Katzin Human parasitic protozoa cause a large number of diseases worldwide and, for some of these diseases, there are no effective treatments to date, and drug resistance has been observed. For these reasons, the discovery of new etiological treatments is necessary. In this sense, parasitic metabolic pathways that are absent in vertebrate hosts would be interesting research candidates for the identification of new drug targets. Most likely due to the protozoa variability, uncertain phylogenetic origin, endosymbiotic events, and evolutionary pressure for adaptation to adverse environments, a surprising variety...
Source: Molecules - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
eet Kaushik Waterborne diseases that originated due to pathogen microorganisms are emerging as a serious global health concern. Therefore, rapid, accurate, and specific detection of these microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and parasitic pathogens) in water resources has become a requirement of water quality assessment. Significant research has been conducted to develop rapid, efficient, scalable, and affordable sensing techniques to detect biological contaminants. State-of-the-art technology-assisted smart sensors have improved features (high sensitivity and very low detection limit) and can perform in ...
Source: Sensors - Category: Biotechnology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
AbstractA new species,Alexandercestus masoumehae n. sp., is described from the sicklefin lemon shark,Negaprion acutidens (R üppell), from the Iranian coast of the Gulf of Oman. The new species is the third in this genus, all parasitizing species ofNegaprion Whitley. Based on morphological characters and scanning electron microscopy the new species is different from its congeners of in a combination of characters including total length, terminal proglottid length, cirrus sac length, and genital pore position. Compared toAlexandercestus gibsoni Ruhnke&Workman, 2013 andA. manteri Ruhnke&Workman, 2013 the specimen...
Source: Journal of Parasitic Diseases - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 October 2019Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRIAuthor(s): C. Duffin, S. Mirpour, T. Catanzano, C. MooreAbstractAlthough radiologic imaging of bowel infections is often a precursor to definitive diagnosis by endoscopy, biopsy, or stool cultures, imaging can provide critical information for diagnosis and management. Many infectious entities such as viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections can be discovered on imaging. Furthermore, imaging characterizes the extent of infection, involvement of specific bowel segments, and presence of complications in the abdomen. Utilizing a multi...
Source: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT and MRI - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
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