One-Year Lifestyle Intervention, Muscle Lipids, and Cardiometabolic Risk

Purpose Low-attenuation muscle (LAM) area at mid-thigh, a computed tomography (CT)–derived index of intramuscular lipids, is associated with insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. The present study aimed at testing the hypothesis that changes in LAM area in trunk muscles from a single abdominal scan could provide relevant information to evaluate the effects of a lifestyle intervention without the use of a mid-thigh CT scan. Methods Cardiometabolic risk variables, including waist circumference, lipoprotein–lipid profile, glucose tolerance, and cardiorespiratory fitness, were assessed in a sample of 102 dyslipidemic viscerally obese men at baseline and after a 1-yr lifestyle intervention. Abdominal (L4–L5) and mid-thigh CT scans were performed and abdominal muscles classified as psoas and core muscles. Scans were segmented to calculate muscle areas, LAM areas, and mean attenuation values. Results All muscle groups showed a decrease in LAM areas (P
Source: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise - Category: Sports Medicine Tags: APPLIED SCIENCES Source Type: research

Related Links:

ConclusionA high-level of suspicion is required to suspect, diagnose and treat post-RYGB complications. A bariatric on-call rota with appropriately trained personnel is essential.
Source: Obesity Surgery - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
In this study, we identify a link between members of the genus Veillonella and exercise performance. We observed an increase in Veillonella relative abundance in marathon runners postmarathon and isolated a strain of Veillonella atypica from stool samples. Inoculation of this strain into mice significantly increased exhaustive treadmill run time. Veillonella utilize lactate as their sole carbon source, which prompted us to perform a shotgun metagenomic analysis in a cohort of elite athletes, finding that every gene in a major pathway metabolizing lactate to propionate is at higher relative abundance postexercise. Us...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Newsletters Source Type: blogs
Conclusionclinicians should be aware of such condition in patients with history of bariatric surgery who present with long-standing, intermittent abdominal pain.
Source: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Abstract Obesity induces accumulation of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) and ATM-driven inflammatory responses that promote the development of glucose and lipid metabolism disorders. ClC-3 chloride channel/antiporter, encoded by the Clcn3, is critical for some basic cellular functions. Our previous work has shown significant alleviation of type 2 diabetes in Clcn3 knockout (Clcn3-/-) mice. In the present study we investigated the role of Clcn3 in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and ATM inflammation. To establish the mouse obesity model, both Clcn3-/- mice and wild-type mice were fed a HFD for 4 or 16 weeks. ...
Source: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Acta Pharmacol Sin Source Type: research
Conclusion Taken together, evidence from animal and human studies demonstrates that the brain detects levels of circulating nutrients and hormones and consequently organizes an outward response that contributes to the regulation of whole-body glucose homeostasis. However, there are major knowledge gaps about the exact nature of this response and its relative importance compared to peripheral processes. As we have seen, animal studies have provided an anatomical map of CNS glucose regulation and have identified important neurons and neural circuits involved. Additionally, the CNS sensing of key nutrients and hormones has b...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
Ryan R. Kelly1,2†, Lindsay T. McDonald1,2†, Nathaniel R. Jensen1,2, Sara J. Sidles1,2 and Amanda C. LaRue1,2* 1Research Services, Ralph H. Johnson VA Medical Center, Charleston, SC, United States 2Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, United States The significant biochemical and physiological effects of psychological stress are beginning to be recognized as exacerbating common diseases, including osteoporosis. This review discusses the current evidence for psychological stress-associated mental health disorders as risk factors for os...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
AbstractAims/hypothesisIndividuals of South Asian origin are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus and associated comorbidities compared with Europids. Disturbances in energy metabolism may contribute to this increased risk. Skeletal muscle and possibly also brown adipose tissue (BAT) are involved in human energy metabolism and nitric oxide (NO) is suggested to play a pivotal role in regulating mitochondrial biogenesis in both tissues. We aimed to investigate the effects of 6  weeks of supplementation withl-arginine, a precursor of NO, on energy metabolism by BAT and skeletal muscle, as well as gluc...
Source: Diabetologia - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
A 75-year-old man was found to have a solitary liver mass concerning for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). His medical history was notable for obesity, type 2 diabetes, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen was performed for abdominal pain and showed a 4.5 cm mass in the liver. Laboratory evaluation revealed total bilirubin 1.1 mg/dL, albumin 4.5 g/dL, prothrombin time 12.5 seconds, creatinine 1.2 mg/dL, platelets 199, and alpha fetoprotein 36 ng/mL. Magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen showed a 4.5 cm mass in segment 6/7 of the liver demonstrating early arterial enhancement wit...
Source: International Journal of Radiation Oncology * Biology * Physics - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Gray Zone Source Type: research
Conclusions: Although PA plays an important role in the prevention of obesity and related comorbidities, it seems that other physiological mechanisms rather than brown adipocyte activation or recruitment might moderate its beneficial metabolic effects in young sedentary adults. PMID: 30137350 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: J Clin Endocrinol Metab Source Type: research
I’ve been lately discussing the issue of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, or SIBO, a situation in which bowel microorganisms (especially of the undesirable Enterobacteriaceae variety such as E. coli and Shigella) ascend up from the colon and colonize the ileum, jejunum, duodenum, and stomach. This has numerous health implications that are only beginning to be appreciated: irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), fibromyalgia, psoriasis and other skin rashes, restless leg syndrome, diverticular disease, heightened body-wide inflammation, increased risk for colon cancer—SIBO is either synonymous with these condition...
Source: Wheat Belly Blog - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: News & Updates bowel flora dysbiosis Inflammation microbiota prebiotic probiotic sibo small intestinal bacterial overgrowth undoctored wheat belly Source Type: blogs
More News: Cardiology | CT Scan | Diabetes | Diabetes Type 2 | Eating Disorders & Weight Management | Endocrinology | Heart | Insulin | Obesity | PET Scan | Science | Sports Medicine | Study