Effect of ischemic lesions in medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens on affective behavior in rats.

Effect of ischemic lesions in medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens on affective behavior in rats. Behav Brain Res. 2019 Sep 12;:112234 Authors: Happ DF, Wegener G, Tasker RA Abstract Post-stroke depression (PSD) and post-stroke anxiety (PSA) are usually undertreated and many cases may remain undiagnosed, indicating a need for a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Current animal models of PSD and PSA using the middle cerebral artery occlusion model may be associated with motor deficits that can interfere with behavioral tests of depression- and anxiety-like behavior. Unilateral lesions of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) have been reported to induce a depression- and anxiety-like phenotype in mice. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of unilateral microinjections of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the mPFC alone or in combination with the nucleus accumbens (NAc) on the behavior of rats after 2 and 6 weeks. Specifically, we measured anxiety- and depressive-like behavior, locomotion, and cognition. ET-1 injections in the mPFC and NAc resulted in replicable and localized lesions. Lesions to the mPFC and NAc resulted in more time spent in the open arms of the Elevated Plus Maze compared to sham-operated animals at 2 weeks post stroke, indicating decreased anxiety. This effect did not persist until 6 weeks post injection. No differences in locomotion, cognition and depressive-like behavior were found at eithe...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

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In conclusion, ICEP effectively reduced cognitive impairment, anxiety, and depression in AIS patients. PMID: 31483000 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research - Category: Research Tags: Braz J Med Biol Res Source Type: research
Stroke is a debilitating neurological condition which usually results in the abnormal electrical brain activity and the impairment of sensation, motor or cognition functions. In this context, neurofeedback training, i.e., a non-invasive and relatively low cost technique that contributes to neuroplasticity and behavioral performance, might be promising for stroke rehabilitation. We intended to explore neurofeedback training on a 63-year-old male patient and a 77-year-old female patient with chronic stroke. Both of them had suffered from an ischemic stroke for rather long period (more than three years) and could not gain fur...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Our findings show that disability assessment late in the first week after onset of stroke using NIHSS accurately forecast outcome at one month after onset of stroke. The MMSE too is not expected to change at 1 month. Those with aphasia are expected to have greater disability. Based on or study we recommend that stroke patients should be assessed with NIHSS and MMSE before discharge, to explain the prognosis of the patient. Also more intense counselling on controlling blood pressure and diabetes as well as abstinence from smoking should be undertaken routinely. PMID: 31309796 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India - Category: General Medicine Tags: J Assoc Physicians India Source Type: research
Conclusions: IPCP presents with a positive influence on improving cognitive impairment and decreasing anxiety as well as depression, while a less effect on improving RFS in AIS patients. Abbreviation: IPCP: intensive patient care program; RFS: relapse free survival; AIS: acute ischemic stroke; MRA: magnetic resonance angiography; ITT: intention-to-treat; LOCF: last observation carried forward. PMID: 31266412 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Neurological Research - Category: Neurology Tags: Neurol Res Source Type: research
Abstract Background: Upper extremity impairment is present in most of people with stroke. The use of the affected upper extremity can be impacted not only by physical impairment but also by abehavioral phenomenon called learned nonuse. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate which clinical factors in the acute phase are associated with the development of learned nonuse in the upper extremity after stroke. Methods: This cohort study included 38 patients with ischemic stroke. Hospital discharge data were collected for clinical aspects, scales of severity, incapacity and autonomy, as well as for neuromuscula...
Source: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Top Stroke Rehabil Source Type: research
Joong-Goo Kim1,2, Han-Bin Lee2 and Sang-Beom Jeon2* 1Department of Neurology, Jeju National University Hospital, Jeju, South Korea 2Department of Neurology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea Objectives: The use of dexmedetomidine and ketamine (DEX–KET) combination for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sedation has not been evaluated. We investigated the efficacy and safety of DEX–KET for sedation of patients undergoing MRI of the brain. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted to compare the DEX–KET combination and midazolam for MRI sed...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Wei Li1†, Wei-Min Xiao1†, Yang-Kun Chen1*, Jian-Feng Qu1, Yong-Lin Liu1, Xue-Wen Fang2, Han-Yu Weng1 and Gen-Pei Luo11Department of Neurology, Dongguan People’s Hospital, Dongguan, China2Department of Radiology, Dongguan People’s Hospital, Dongguan, ChinaBackground: Anxiety is prevalent after a stroke. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the development of poststroke anxiety (PSA) remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and neuroimaging risk factors for development of PSA and examine the effects of PSA on activities of daily living (ADL) and quality of life (...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
In conclusion, our data show some of the brain modifications probably responsible for the behavioral phenotype associated with TBI and suggest the CBD as a pharmacological tool to improve neurological dysfunctions caused by the trauma. Introduction The phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD), the major non-psychoactive constituent of Cannabis sativa, exhibits a broad spectrum of potential therapeutic properties, including neuroprotective effects in Central Nervous System (CNS) disorders (Fernández-Ruiz et al., 2013; De Gregorio et al., 2018; Schonhofen et al., 2018). Through a multitarget mechanism, CBD shows pot...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
DISCUSSION: Resilience was an independent predictor of quality of life beyond anxiety and depression in patients with ischemic stroke. Interventions aimed at improving resilience at acute hospitalization might be a worthwhile addition to improve quality of life early after stroke. PMID: 30957683 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Top Stroke Rehabil Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: Exposure to female estrous reduces mortality and improves functional recovery in MCAO male mice. The study provides the first evidence to support the importance of female interaction to male stroke rehabilitation. ABBREVIATIONS: GAP-43: growth-associated protein-43; SYP: Synaptophysin; MCAO: middle cerebral artery occlusion; OVXs: ovariectomies; CCA: common carotid artery; ECA: external carotid artery; EFE: estrous female exposure; TTC: 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride; PAGE: polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; PVDF: polyvinylidene difluoride; ANOVA: analysis of variance; LSD: least significant differenc...
Source: Neurological Research - Category: Neurology Tags: Neurol Res Source Type: research
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