Dysfunction between dorsal caudate and salience network associated with impaired cognitive flexibility in obsessive-compulsive disorder: A resting-state fMRI study

ConclusionsThese results provide evidence that the impaired cognitive flexibility of OCD may be associated with dysfunctions of the brain network from the dorsal caudate (DC) to important nodes of the salience network. Our results extend the neuropsychological model of OCD by showing intrinsically different associations between OCD and HC in functional network and cognitive flexibility.
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - Category: Radiology Source Type: research

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BackgroundAll current approved antipsychotic drugs against schizophrenia spectrum disorders share affinity for the dopamine receptor (D2R). However, up to one-third of these patients respond insufficiently, and in some cases, side-effects outweigh symptom reduction. Previous data have suggested that a subgroup of antipsychotic-naïve patients will respond to serotonin 2A receptor (2AR) blockade.AimsThis investigator-initiated, translational, proof-of-concept study has overall two aims; 1) To test the clinical effectiveness of monotherapy with the newly approved drug against Parkinson's disease psychosis, pimavanserin, ...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 6 February 2020Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Bhaskar Sen, Gail A. Bernstein, Bryon A. Mueller, Kathryn R. Cullen, Keshab K. ParhiAbstractThis paper presents a novel approach for classifying obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in adolescents from resting-state fMRI data. Currently, the state-of-the-art for diagnosing OCD in youth involves interviews with adolescent patients and their parents by an experienced clinician, symptom rating scales based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), and behavioral observation. Discovering signal processing and network-b...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
ConclusionThe current results suggest that aberrant functional interaction between the salience network (SN) and the DMN may represent a common substrate in the pathophysiology of OCD, while impaired functional coupling within the SN is distinct to autogenous-type OCD patients. These findings provide further neurobiological evidence to support the autogenous-reactive classification model and contribute to the understanding of the neurobiological basis for clinical heterogeneity in OCD.
Source: Progress in Neuro Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The remission of the patient suggested that CCT could be an alternative intervention for treatment-refractory OCD and those with severe OCD could be cured in short-term. PMID: 31756555 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Asian Journal of Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Asian J Psychiatr Source Type: research
Limbic cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical functional connectivity in drug-naïve patients of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychol Med. 2019 Oct 23;:1-13 Authors: Zhao Q, Xu T, Wang Y, Chen D, Liu Q, Yang Z, Wang Z Abstract BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) remains unclear despite extensive neuroimaging work on the disorder. Exposure to medication and comorbid mental disorders can confound the results of OCD studies. The goal of this study was to explore differences in brain functional connectivity (FC) within the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) loop of ...
Source: Psychological Medicine - Category: Psychiatry Authors: Tags: Psychol Med Source Type: research
Authors: Gupta A, Khanna S, Jain R Abstract The main objective of this study is to assess the effectiveness of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral striatum (VS) of the anterior limb of internal capsule for patients suffering from refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and to compare its result with traditional anterior capsulotomy. The present study consisted of two patients subjected to stimulation of ventral capsule (VC)/VS region of internal capsule for refractory OCD. Leads were implanted on both sides stereotactically using fused images of magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scan...
Source: Indian Journal of Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Indian J Psychiatry Source Type: research
Authors: Lv D, Ou Y, Chen Y, Yang R, Zhong Z, Jia C, Sun L, Wang Y, Zhang G, Sun Z, Wang W, Wang Y, Wang X, Guo W, Li P Abstract Abnormalities of the cerebellum and default-mode network (DMN) in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been widely reported. However, alterations of reciprocal functional connections between the cerebellum and DMN at rest in OCD remain unclear. Forty patients with OCD and 38 gender-, age-, and education-matched healthy controls (HCs) underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan. Seed-based functional connectivity (FC) and support vector machine (SVM...
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Psychiatry Tags: Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci Source Type: research
Conclusions: This study found overlapping higher ReHo values in the right DLPFC of OCD patients and their unaffected siblings. Our results suggest that the higher ReHo in the right DLPFC may be a potential neuroimaging endophenotype, which may reflect an increased genetic risk of OCD.
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
In this study, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to scan 45 OCD patients and 43 well-matched healthy controls (HCs). Thalamic subregions were defined according to the Human Brainnetome Atlas. The fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) and FC seeding-based connectivity were compared using a two-sample t-test. Correlations between abnormal FC and clinical symptoms were analyzed in OCD patients. Compared with HCs, increased fALFF was found in the bilateral thalamus, and increased FC was observed between the right posterior parietal thalamus (PPtha) and left middle occipital gyrus ...
Source: Behavioural Brain Research - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research
Hui Xu1,2,3, Chenguang Guo1, Haining Li1, Lin Gao2, Ming Zhang1* and Yuan Wang1* 1Department of Medical Imaging, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China 2Key Laboratory of Biomedical Information Engineering of Education Ministry, Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an, China 3Faculty of Dentistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Background and Purpose: Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a rare neuromuscular disorder characterized by unilateral, involuntary, and paroxysmal contractions of orofacial muscles. To eluci...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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