Cancer Stem Cells and Stem Cell Tumors in Drosophila.

Cancer Stem Cells and Stem Cell Tumors in Drosophila. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2019;1167:175-190 Authors: Singh SR, Aggarwal P, Hou SX Abstract Accumulative studies suggest that a fraction of cells within a tumor, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs) that initiate tumors, show resistance to most of the therapies, and causes tumor recurrence and metastasis. CSCs could be either transformed normal stem cells or reprogrammed differentiated cells. The eventual goal of CSC research is to identify pathways that selectively regulate CSCs and then target these pathways to eradicate CSCs. CSCs and normal stem cells share some common features, such as self-renewal, the production of differentiated progeny, and the expression of stem-cell markers, however, CSCs vary from normal stem cells in forming tumors. Specifically, CSCs are normally resistant to standard therapies. In addition, CSCs and non-CSCs can be mutually convertible in response to different signals or microenvironments. Even though CSCs are involved in human cancers, the biology of CSCs, is still not well understood, there are urgent needs to study CSCs in model organisms. In the last several years, discoveries in Drosophila have greatly contributed to our understanding of human cancer. Stem-cell tumors in Drosophila share various properties with human CSCs and maybe used to understand the biology of CSCs. In this chapter, we first briefly review CSCs in mammalian systems, then discuss stem-cell tumors in the Dro...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

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In conclusion, these results reveal that PIK3CA is significantly downregulated by miR-27b expression in CSCs. Thus, we presume that miR-27b may be a therapeutic anti-tumor agent for CRC via targeting PI3K p110α. PMID: 31632566 [PubMed]
Source: American Journal of Translational Research - Category: Research Tags: Am J Transl Res Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results indicate that TNF-α and IFN-γ pretreatment effectively inhibited the repair ability of MSCs and accelerated inflammation and tumor progression involving NF-κB/STAT3 pathway and angiogenesis-related factors. PMID: 31632588 [PubMed]
Source: American Journal of Translational Research - Category: Research Tags: Am J Transl Res Source Type: research
Authors: Cui L, Cheng Z, Hu K, Pang Y, Liu Y, Qian T, Quan L, Dai Y, Pang Y, Ye X, Shi J, Fu L Abstract Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a genetically complex, highly aggressive hematological malignancy. Prognosis is usually with grim. PDZ and LIM domain proteins (PDLIM) are involved in the regulation of a variety of biological processes, including cytoskeletal organization, cell differentiation, organ development, neural signaling or tumorigenesis. The clinical and prognostic value of the PDLIM family in AML is unclear. To understand the role of PDLIM expression in AML, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database was s...
Source: American Journal of Translational Research - Category: Research Tags: Am J Transl Res Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 22 October 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Tamara T. Lah, Metka Novak, Barbara BreznikAbstractBrain, the major organ of the central nervous system controls and processes most of our body activities and therefore the most aggressive brain tumor – glioblastoma and metastases from other organs to the bran are lethal, leaving the patients with very low survival time. The brain tissue landscape is very different from any other tissues and the specific microenvironment significantly shape up the glioblastoma local progression and metastasis out of the brain, as well as ac...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 22 October 2019Source: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and MedicineAuthor(s): Muhammad Younis, Wang Faming, Zhao Hongyan, Tan Mengmeng, Song Hang, Yuan LiudiAbstractGlioma is the most common neoplasm of the central nervous system, with the highest mortality rate. The present study was designed to examine the therapeutic effect of Iguratimod (IGU) encapsulated- poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) PLGA nanoparticles (IGU-PLGA-NPs), which showed inhibition of glioma cells proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. IGU was encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles with an average size of 100-200 nm w...
Source: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine - Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research
AbstractAnoikis resistance is an essential property of cancer cells that allow the extra-cellular matrix-detached cells to survive in a suspended state in body fluid in order to metastasize and invade to distant organs. It is known that integrins play an important role in anoikis resistance, but detailed mechanisms are not well understood. Here we report that highly metastatic colon cancer cells showed a higher degree of anoikis resistance than the normal intestinal epithelial cells. These anoikis-resistant cancer cells express high-levels of integrin- α2, β1, and activated EGFR in the anchorage-independent stat...
Source: Apoptosis - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Jeffrey T. Chang Suhas Vasaikar Rama Soundararajan Arun Sreekumar Sendurai A. Mani Identifying bioenergetics that facilitate the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in breast cancer cells may uncover targets to treat incurable metastatic disease. Metastasis is the number one cause of cancer-related deaths; therefore, it is urgent to identify new treatment strategies to prevent the initiation of metastasis. To characterize the bioenergetics of EMT, we compared metabolic activities and gene expression in cells induced to differentiate into the mesenchymal state with their epithelial counterparts. We found ...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
Exosomes derived from human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUCMSCs) expressing microRNAs (miRs) have been highlighted as important carriers for gene or drug therapy. Hence, this study aimed to explore the role of exosomal miR-148b-3p from HUCMSCs in breast cancer. Clinical samples subjected to RT-qPCR detection revealed that miR-148b-3p was poorly expressed, while tripartite motif 59 (TRIM59) was highly expressed in breast cancer tissues. Online analyses available at miRanda, TargetScan, and miRbase databases revealed that miR-148b-3p could bind to TRIM59, while dual-luciferase reporter gene assay further verified ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe experience of changes in taste was common yet highly variable in its presentation and resultant changes in food preferences. Taste changes did not always resolve soon after treatment completion. Future research should identify ways to manage this symptom in pediatric cancer patients.
Source: Quality of Life Research - Category: Health Management Source Type: research
We reported on a 54-year-old patient with a diagnosis of grade 2 follicular lymphoma (FL) and concomitant renal cancer. After the nephrectomy, the patient underwent two lines of chemoimmunotherapy, autologous stem cell transplant, obtained a complete response with idelalisib and underwent an allogeneic transplant (alloSCT).
Source: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma and Leukemia - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: Case Report Source Type: research
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