Drosophila as a Model for Tumor-Induced Organ Wasting.

Drosophila as a Model for Tumor-Induced Organ Wasting. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2019;1167:191-205 Authors: Saavedra P, Perrimon N Abstract In humans, cancer-associated cachexia is a complex syndrome that reduces the overall quality of life and survival of cancer patients, particularly for those undergoing chemotherapy. The most easily observable sign of cachexia is organ wasting, the dramatic loss of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue mass. Estimates suggest that 80% of patients in advanced stages of cancer show signs of the syndrome and about 20% of cancer patients die directly of cachexia. Because there is no treatment or drug available to ameliorate organ wasting induced by cancer, cachexia is a relevant clinical problem. However, it is unclear how cachexia is mediated, what factors drive interactions between tumors and host tissues, and which markers of cachexia might be used to allow early detection before the observable signs of organ wasting. In this chapter, we review the current mammalian models of cachexia and the need to use new models of study. We also explain recent developments in Drosophila as a model for studying organ wasting induced by tumors and how fly studies can help unravel important mechanisms that drive cachexia. In particular, we discuss what lessons have been learned from tumor models recently reported to induce systemic organ wasting in Drosophila. PMID: 31520356 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 14 October 2019Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology &TherapeuticsAuthor(s): Huda Badri, Jaclyn A. SmithAbstractCough is mediated by vagal afferent fibres innervating the larynx and proximal airways. Pre-clinical studies suggest that vagal C fibres produce Substance P, one of the tachykinin family of neuropeptides, which has been shown to enhance cough via the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor and studies in animal models have also shown that NK-1 antagonists are effective at blocking induced cough. In the past, tachykinin receptor antagonists have yielded disappointing results in treating asthma...
Source: Pulmonary Pharmacology and Therapeutics - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research
ConclusionNeoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by laparoscopic and open radical hysterectomy seems to be a safe treatment option for locally advanced cervical cancer, in terms of similar survival outcomes and morbidity of treatment with CCRT. However, the present study is too limited to permit conclusions due to its small sample size and retrospective design despite statistical methods for adjusting confounding factors.
Source: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
ConclusionPlatinum-based NACT was well tolerated in patients with LACC and showed moderate response activity. Compared to NCIV, NCIA showed an evident advantage in the clinical response with a similar toxicity rate. The clinical efficacy of NCIA deserves further evaluation.
Source: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
ConclusionTo optimize targeting and visualization of the surgical field in right pelvic sidewall/paracolic gutter, robotic arms can be placed in a straight line from above the pubic symphysis extending to the left subcostal line and between the midline vertical and midclavicular lines. Robotic tumor debulking should be considered in selected patients with recurrent ovarian cancer who present with oligo-metastatic disease, in the absence of carcinomatosis.
Source: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
Publication date: November–December 2019Source: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology, Volume 26, Issue 7, SupplementAuthor(s): JM Eom, JS Choi, J Bae, WM Lee, US Jung, H LeeStudy ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to assess the surgical and oncologic outcome of laparoscopic primary cytoreductive surgery on advanced epithelial ovarian cancer in comparison with conventional laparotomy surgery.DesignRetrospective cohort study.SettingUniversity hospital in Korea.Patients or ParticipantsPatients with FIGO stage up to III ovarian cancer undergoing laparoscopic primary cytoreductive surgery from January 2011 to March 20...
Source: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
ConclusionRobotic approach to highly morbid pelvic exenteration procedures should be considered in selected patients with recurrent gynecologic malignancies, who present without evidence of distant metastatic disease.
Source: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
Authors: Fedele P, Sanna V, Fancellu A, Cinieri S Abstract Introduction: The dysregulation of cell cycle control can lead to cancer development. In breast cancer, cyclin D, CDK 4,6 and the retinoblastoma protein play a central role in the control of cell proliferation, in crosstalk with the estrogen receptor and Her2 pathways. Although the mechanisms by which the CDK4/6 complex is involved in the control of cell growth in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) are still unclear, some TNBCs might be sensitive to CDK4/6 inhibitors. Areas covered: The authors provide an overview of the treatments that target cell cycle ...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 14 October 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Holly E. Barker, Clare L. ScottAbstractGynaecological carcinosarcomas are the most lethal gynaecological malignancies that are often highly resistant to standard chemotherapy. They are composed of both carcinomatous and sarcomatous components and are associated with high rates of metastatic disease. Due to their rarity, molecular studies have been carried out on relatively few tumours, revealing a broad spectrum of heterogeneity. In this review, we have collated the gene mutations, gene expression, epigenetic regulation and prote...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
ConclusionWhile radiation therapy might increase long-term toxicity in cHL, in our large data cohort, radiotherapy consolidation as part of the initial therapy for early stage disease provides superior survival at 10 years, especially in favorable risk cHL.
Source: Hematology Oncology and Stem Cell Therapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Condition:   Soft Tissue Sarcoma Interventions:   Drug: Apatinib Mesylate, Pirarubicin, Ifosfamide;   Drug: Apatinib Mesylate;   Drug: Pirarubicin, Ifosfamide Sponsor:   Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital Recruiting
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
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