Drosophila melanogaster as a Model System for Human Glioblastomas.

Drosophila melanogaster as a Model System for Human Glioblastomas. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2019;1167:207-224 Authors: Chen AS, Read RD Abstract Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary malignant adult brain tumor. Genomic amplifications, activating mutations, and overexpression of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) such as EGFR, and genes in core RTK signaling transduction pathways such as PI3K are common in GBM. However, efforts to target these pathways have been largely unsuccessful in the clinic, and the median survival of GBM patients remains poor at 14-15 months. Therefore, to improve patient outcomes, there must be a concerted effort to elucidate the underlying biology involved in GBM tumorigenesis. Drosophila melanogaster has been a highly effective model for furthering our understanding of GBM tumorigenesis due to a number of experimental advantages it has over traditional mouse models. For example, there exists extensive cellular and genetic homology between humans and Drosophila, and 75% of genes associated with human disease have functional fly orthologs. To take advantage of these traits, we developed a Drosophila GBM model with constitutively active variants of EGFR and PI3K that effectively recapitulated key aspects of GBM disease. Researchers have utilized this model in forward genetic screens and have expanded on its functionality to make a number of important discoveries regarding requirements for key components in GBM tumori...
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: Apoptosis is an important clinical target to protect NSCs during brain tumor radiotherapy using carbon-ion radiation as well as conventional X-rays. PMID: 31633435 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: International Journal of Radiation Biology - Category: Radiology Tags: Int J Radiat Biol Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 22 October 2019Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Tamara T. Lah, Metka Novak, Barbara BreznikAbstractBrain, the major organ of the central nervous system controls and processes most of our body activities and therefore the most aggressive brain tumor – glioblastoma and metastases from other organs to the bran are lethal, leaving the patients with very low survival time. The brain tissue landscape is very different from any other tissues and the specific microenvironment significantly shape up the glioblastoma local progression and metastasis out of the brain, as well as ac...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 22 October 2019Source: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and MedicineAuthor(s): Muhammad Younis, Wang Faming, Zhao Hongyan, Tan Mengmeng, Song Hang, Yuan LiudiAbstractGlioma is the most common neoplasm of the central nervous system, with the highest mortality rate. The present study was designed to examine the therapeutic effect of Iguratimod (IGU) encapsulated- poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) PLGA nanoparticles (IGU-PLGA-NPs), which showed inhibition of glioma cells proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. IGU was encapsulated in PLGA nanoparticles with an average size of 100-200 nm w...
Source: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine - Category: Nanotechnology Source Type: research
The objective of this paper was to obtain monitored tumor-targeted therapeutic nanoparticles (NPs). To that end, theranostic surfactant-coated polymer poly-Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA) nanoplatform encapsulating doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) and superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs (SPIONs) were developed. Different non-ionic surfactants known as BBB crossing enhancers (Tween 80, Brij-35, Pluronic F68 or Vitamin E-TPGS) were used to develop 4 types of theranostic nanoplatforms, which were characterized in terms of size and morphology by DLS, TEM and STEM-HAADF analyses. Moreover, the 3-month stability test, the therapeutic...
Source: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Eur J Pharm Biopharm Source Type: research
Authors: Wang L, He Z Abstract Glioma, the most common and aggressive type of brain tumor, has a poor prognosis. Glioma stem cells (GSCs) are thought to be responsible for glioma genesis, proliferation, resistance to chemoradiotherapy, and recurrence. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been viewed as a prospective novel target in glioma therapy in recent years due to their functional roles in GSC biological processes. However, how lncRNAs interact with GSCs and the underlining mechanisms associated with these interactions are not yet clear. In this review, we briefly illustrate recent advancements in the functiona...
Source: Medical Science Monitor - Category: Research Tags: Med Sci Monit Source Type: research
ConclusionsWe were able to generate novel pediatric glioma mouse models that can be used to examine selected mutations found in human pediatric gliomas and serve as a pre-clinical tool for testing novel therapeutic targets.Legal entity responsible for the studyThe authors.FundingDKFZ-MOST grant.DisclosureAll authors have declared no conflicts of interest.
Source: Annals of Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In cancer cells, aberrant DNA methylation is commonly associated with transcriptional alterations, including silencing of tumor suppressor genes. However, multiple epigenetic mechanisms, including polycomb repressive marks, contribute to gene deregulation in cancer. To dissect the relative contribution of DNA methylation–dependent and –independent mechanisms to transcriptional alterations at CpG island/promoter-associated genes in cancer, we studied 70 samples of adult glioma, a widespread type of brain tumor, classified according to their isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH1) mutation status. We found that most tran...
Source: Genome Research - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: RESEARCH Source Type: research
ConclusionThiotepa elimination was comparable in pediatric and adult patients with cancer. LowerVz in pediatric compared with adult patients was expected. HDT with thiotepa prior to autologous HSCT was well tolerated.Study registrationJapic CTI-163433.
Source: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
We investigated by immunohistochemistry the clinical significance and the evolution of Oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 (OLIG2) and cyclin D2 (CCND2) protein expression, two markers highly specific of glioma stem cells, on a cohort of human paired glioblastoma samples comparing initial resections with recurrent tumors after radiation therapy alone or radio ‐chemotherapy with temozolomide according to the Stupp regimen. Our study highlighted for the first time the prognostic value of high nuclear expression of CCND2 at initial surgery which is associated with early mortality and patients for whom nuclear exp...
Source: Cancer Medicine - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research
Conclusion: KLRC2 could be a novel cellular marker for brain tumor-initiating cells. PMID: 31556357 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Neurological Research - Category: Neurology Tags: Neurol Res Source Type: research
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