What Drosophila Can Teach Us About Radiation Biology of Human Cancers.

What Drosophila Can Teach Us About Radiation Biology of Human Cancers. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2019;1167:225-236 Authors: Su TT Abstract Ionizing radiation (IR) is used to treat more than half of human cancer patients. The therapeutic effect of IR is due to its ability to induce apoptosis. Success of radiation therapy relies not only on apoptosis induction but also on whether surviving cancer cells proliferate and regenerate a tumor. Drosophila melanogaster is a premier genetic model and, relevant to radiation biology of cancer, Drosophila larvae display an amazing capacity to regenerate. IR doses that kill more than half of the cells in larval tissues still allow complete regeneration to produce an adult fly of normal size and pattern. It is by understanding not only the initial effects of IR such as DNA damage and cell death but also longer-term regenerative responses that we may manipulate and improve radiation therapy of cancer. In this regard, Drosophila offers an unparalleled model to study both types of responses. PMID: 31520358 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology - Category: Research Tags: Adv Exp Med Biol Source Type: research

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ConclusionWhile radiation therapy might increase long-term toxicity in cHL, in our large data cohort, radiotherapy consolidation as part of the initial therapy for early stage disease provides superior survival at 10 years, especially in favorable risk cHL.
Source: Hematology Oncology and Stem Cell Therapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
AbstractPurposeTo evaluate biochemical recurrence (BCR) risk in men with localized prostate cancer (PC) of pathological Gleason score (pGS) 8 –10. Although such patients have low BCR-free survival (BCRFS) following radical prostatectomy (RP), they are not recommended for adjuvant radiation therapy (ART) as per current guidelines.MethodsAmong an adjuvant treatment-na ïve cohort between 1995 and 2015, 1272 men were identified and categorized into group 1 [pGS7 (3 + 4) and pT3;n  =  654], group 2 [pGS7 (4 + 3) and pT3;n  =  408], and group 3 (pGS 8–10 an...
Source: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
The objective function considers pairs of dose points and each pair is given a distance-based penalty if the dose is either too high or too low at both dose points. Constraints are included to retain dosimetric indices at acceptable levels. Our model is designed to automate the manual adjustment step in the planning process. In the automatic adjustment step large-scale optimization models are solved. We show reductions of the volumes of the largest hot and cold spots, and the computing times are feasible in clinical practice. PMID: 31610533 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Physics in Medicine and Biology - Category: Physics Authors: Tags: Phys Med Biol Source Type: research
AbstractPurposeIt has been accepted that radiation therapy (RT) for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) has no survival benefit despite increasing local control. However, a recent large database study reported a small but significant benefit. Using a Korean population-based large database, we examined the survival benefit of RT for DCIS after breast-conserving surgery (BCS) and analyzed which subgroup might derive benefit from it.MethodsData from 6038 female DCIS patients who underwent BCS with or without RT between 1993 and 2012 were included in this study. We used propensity score analysis to control for differences in basel...
Source: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Purpose of review The aim of this study was to review studies published within the past year regarding management of gastric cancer. Recent findings Laparoscopic gastrectomy achieves equivalent survival compared with open gastrectomy in early stage and locally advanced gastric cancer. Adjuvant chemotherapy with 6 months of S-1 and oxaliplatin was superior to 12 months of S-1, and the addition of postoperative radiation therapy did not improve survival. The FLOT regimen is the new standard for preoperative chemotherapy. In metastatic gastric cancer, the addition of docetaxel to S-1 and cisplatin failed to improve overa...
Source: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: STOMACH AND DUODENUM: Edited by Mitchell L. Schubert Source Type: research
Conditions:   Oropharynx Cancer;   Oropharynx Squamous Cell Carcinoma;   Carcinoma, Squamous Cell;   Carcinoma;   Oropharyngeal Neoplasms;   Neoplasms, Squamous Cell;   Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial;   Neoplasms by Histologic Type;   Pharyngeal Neoplasms Malignant and Unspecif ied;   Otorhinolaryngologic Neoplasms;   Head and Neck Neoplasms;   Neoplasms by Site;   Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases;   Pharyngeal Diseases...
Source: ClinicalTrials.gov - Category: Research Source Type: clinical trials
AbstractRadiation therapy (RT) is a crucial part of cancer care, but previous work suggests that many non-radiation oncologist physicians are uncomfortable referring for RT. To evaluate training and understanding of RT, the authors sent invitations to complete an online questionnaire to all physicians at a community hospital in Bronx, NY, which asked about oncology training and self-rated and objective knowledge of RT. Out of 247 invited participants, 87 responded (35%). Among responders, 19 were attending physicians (22%) and 66 (76%) were residents. Seventy-two percent of respondents reported caring for>  5 can...
Source: Journal of Cancer Education - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
This article also highlights the role of multidisciplinary involvement in management of extremity skeletal metastasis.
Source: Indian Journal of Palliative Care - Category: Palliative Care Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose/objective(s)Data from Darby et al. demonstrated that cardiac dose in patients undergoing breast radiation therapy is associated with cardiac events. Cardiac dose is primarily dependent on treatment laterality and treatment fields. More recently, techniques such deep inspiratory breath hold (DIBH) and prone positioning have been used as cardiac sparing techniques. The purpose of this study is to assess changes in cardiac dosimetry with cardiac sparing techniques.Materials/methodsThis retrospective study included breast cancer patients treated from 2010 to 2018 at a single institution. Mean heart dose (MHD) w...
Source: Journal of Radiation Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
ConclusionsBreast conservation may be considered a safe alternative in the surgical treatment of MBC. Future research should focus on better standardization of local therapy for MBC and improved reporting of outcomes.
Source: Annals of Surgical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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